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Effect of different drying methods on the mineral content of Seaweed Sargassum sp

Agustinus Paga1,2, Ali Agus3, Kustantinah3 and I Gede Suparta Budisatria3

1 Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Fauna No. 3 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta-55281, Indonesia
aliagus@ugm.ac.id
2 Department of Animal Science, Kupang State Agricultural Polytechnic, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, 85228, Indonesia
3 Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Fauna No. 3 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta-55281, Indonesia

Abstract

Seaweed Sargassum sp. which is not used as food, has the potential to be animal feed, especially as a source of minerals. This study aims to evaluate the macro and micro-minerals contents of seaweed Sargassum sp. based on different drying methods. Seaweed Sargassum sp. was obtained from Sepanjang Beach Gunungkidul Regency, Yogyakarta Indonesia. The seaweed Sargassum sp. was cleaned to remove the unwanted materials and then was dried using three different methods. The first method was sun drying for three days, starting at 07.00 to 14.00 pm. The second method was oven drying at 55oC for four days. The third method was freeze dryer drying at a temperature of -20oC for three days, starting from 07.00 to 15.30 pm. After drying, all of the seaweed Sargassum sp. was grinded for further analysis for mineral content using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry method. The data obtained were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that the sun drying method had a higher mineral content (P<0.01) than oven drying and freeze dryer based on macro minerals, namely calcium 38.48 g kg-1 DM, and magnesium 13.20 g kg-1 DM; micro minerals namely cobalt 30.62 ppm. Thus, the sun drying method can be used optimally to preserve the seaweed Sargassum sp. without affecting the mineral composition.

Keywords: animal feed, macro minerals, micro minerals, preserve methods


Introduction

Seaweed is a very potential biological resource for minerals. Indonesia, as an archipelago has more than 17,000 islands and 81,000 km of a long coastline, which is the second-longest coastline in the world after Canada (Wouthuyzen et al 2016). The condition of Indonesia's coastline supports the production of seaweed. There are three types of seaweed in the world based on colour pigments, namely red seaweed (Rhodophyceae), brown seaweed (Phaeophyceae) and green seaweed (Chlorophyceae) (Hoek and Bayoumi 2018). Seaweed Sargassum sp. is a species of brown seaweed (Mwalugha et al 215). Seaweed Sargassum sp. lives in temperate, subtropical and tropical waters around the world (Makkar et al 2016). In Indonesia, seaweed Sargassum sp. spreads throughout the waters ranging from West to East of Indonesian waters (Saraswati et al 2020).

Seaweed Sargassum sp. in Indonesia consists of 58 species but only 12 species are used for food, and alginate (Sumandiarsa et al 2020). Three types of seaweed-based on the colour that can be consumed by humans are 5% for green seaweed, 62% for brown seaweed and 33% for red seaweed (Diharmi et al 2019). The highest consumption is in Asia, including Japan, China, and Korea, followed by North America, South America, and Europe (Diharmi et al 2019). However, there is also seaweed Sargassum sp. which, cannot be consumed. Seaweed Sargassum sp. which is found in Gunungkidul Yogyakarta, Indonesia, is categorized as a non-edible seaweed. Seaweed Sargassum sp. that is not edible or not suitable for sale, can be used for animal feed as they contain a good source of macronutrients such as carbohydrates, protein, fibre, fats and micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins (Mwalugha et al 215). Seaweed is generally rich in mineral resources (Wong and Cheung 2000 Santoso et al 2002). Seaweed Sargassum sp. mostly contains macro-minerals and micro-minerals. Red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii DOTY) has a high total flavonoid content of 15.93% (Lalopua et al 2011). Fresh seaweed contains 75 to 85% water and 15 to 25% organic and mineral components (Norra et al 2017). In a fresh condition, the seaweed Sargassum sp. is perishable after a few days of harvest. Due to the high water content in the seaweed Sargassum sp. post-harvest the seaweed must be dried before evaluating the mineral content. The purpose of drying is to reduce water activity and to prevent microbial growth as well as to help maintain quality and reduce storage volume (Gupta et al 2011). In addition, low water content is very good during storage to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi so that the material is not damaged (Hamid et al 2018). Also, drying seaweed is very important to prevent gel production during processing (Chan et al 1997)

Post-harvest handling of seaweed is carried out on drying settings, including sun-drying, oven- drying and freeze dryer drying. One research that has ever been conducted solely looked at the effect of sun-drying or oven-drying or freeze-drying or sun-drying and ovens. Research on sun-drying of seaweed Sargassum sp was conducted by Kumar et al (2015) mineral seaweeds 10-20 times more than land plants. Meanwhile, research on oven-drying in Arue and Punaauia in French was conducted by Zubia et al (2003) the mineral Sargassum mangarevense shows a high mineral content in calcium, 33.5 mg/100 g, magnesium 13.7 mg/100 g and potassium 2.0 g/100 g compared to T. ornata and drift algae. Rohani et al (2012) reported that freeze-drying of Sargassum mineral content, potassium 876.6 mg/100 g dry weightt and magnesium 81.7 mg/100 g dry weight higher than green seaweed and red seaweed. Sun-drying, oven and freeze-drying Sun-drying mineral content is lower than oven-drying and freezes-drying. Oven-drying has advantages over solar drying; namely the temperature is more stable and easier to control (Chan et al 1997). There has never been a study to compare the method of sun-drying, oven and freeze dryer of Sargassum sp. Seaweed with the mineral content found on the Sepanjang Beach Gunungkidul Yogyakarta. This research is expected to provide information on mineral content based on the method of sun-drying, oven-drying and freeze dryer drying of seaweed Sargassum sp. from Sepanjang Beach Gunungkidul Yogyakarta, Indonesia.


Materials and methods

Seaweed Collection

Seaweed Sargassum sp. was obtained from the Sepanjang Beach Gunungkidul Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia then was cleaned from dirt and other materials.

Drying Methods

The drying process of Sargassum sp. was divided into three methods. The first method was sun-drying by drying for three days, starting at 07.00 to 14.00 pm. The second method was oven-drying at 55oC for four days. The third method was freeze dryer drying at -20oC for three days, where every day started at 07.00 to 15.30 pm. Seaweed Sargassum sp. after drying using the drying method, then the seaweed was milled using a willy mill with a filter diameter of 1 mm.

Minerals Analysis

The samples were dissolved in 1 M NHO3 and H2O2 by using the microwave, before digestion, to determine the content of macro-minerals ( Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium and Phosphor) and micro-minerals (Ferrum, Cuprum, Zinc, Cobalt, and Manganese). The concentration of mineral elements in dried seaweed samples was determined by means of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FS95, Thermo, England) equipped with a hollow cathode lamp according to the method described in MOOPAM (1989) and (Ruperez 2002). The mineral concentrations of seaweed were calculated from the calibration curve of each standard element.

Statistical Analysis

The data obtained were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS (Windows version of SPSS, release 22) (SPSS 2013). Significance was set at P <0.05. Differences between treatment means were analyzed using Duncan's multiple range test (Steel et al 1997).


Results and discussion

Macro Minerals

The results showed that the drying method had a significant effect (P<0.05) on the content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus but had no effect (P>0.05) on sodium (Table 1). For sun-drying, the contents of calcium, magnesium and sodium are higher than oven-drying and freeze dryer while the potassium and phosphorus contents are lower. The highest potassium content was freeze dryer drying while the highest phosphorus content was oven-drying. The high content of calcium, magnesium and sodium was oven-drying.

The high content of calcium, magnesium and sodium occurred following the sun-drying because the temperature ranges from 32 to 34oC, unstable temperature, and is always in contact with free air. The drying temperature range has not reduced the nutrient value of the seaweed. Drying at high temperatures reduces the nutrient content of seaweed (Hamid et al 2018). Drying Sargassum phylum at 60C for 15 hours will reduce the amount of ash, minerals, and vitamin C compared to fresh seaweed (Chan et al 1997). Preservation of seaweed Sargassum sp. with drying technology, sun drying is done very well. This is due to sun drying is cheap, practical, and easy to do compared to oven-drying and freeze dryers (Milledge and Harvery 2016).

Table 1. Macro-mineral content of Sargassum sp. based on different drying methods

Parameters (g kg-1 DM)

Sun-dried

Oven-dried

Freeze-dried

SEM

p

Calcium

38.48c

34.03b

20.98a

1.00

0.000

Phosphorus

1.19b

1.38c

0.89a

0.03

0.000

Kalium

71.43a

79.96a

99.80b

3.46

0.000

Natrium

40.93a

40.17a

40.62a

2.37

0.977

Magnesium

13.20b

10.89a

11.10a

0.16

0.000

a,b,c Mean values within rows without common superscript differ at p<0.05

Micro Minerals

The results showed that the drying method had a significant effect (P<0.05) on cobalt, manganese, zinc, and Ferrum but had no effect (P>0.05) on cuprum (Table 2). The highest cobalt and zinc mineral content was the sun-drying method. This is because when the sun dries the temperature ranges from 32 to 34oC, unstable temperature and is always in contact with free air. This temperature has not reduced the number of minerals. The highest content of manganese, cuprum and ferrum were in oven drying method. This is due to the temperature is stable in oven-drying at 55oC and is always constant.

Table 2. Micro-mineral content of Sargassum sp. based on different drying methods

Parameters (ppm)

Sun-dried

Oven-dried

Freeze-dried

SEM

p

Cobalt

30.62b

26.31a

22.98a

1.34

0.002

Manganese

181b

187.85b

46.06a

4.36

0.000

Zinc

29.29b

25.85ab

22.51a

1.12

0.003

Cuprum

4.26a

9.35a

9.01a

0.88

0.258

Ferrum

1397.88b

1457.90c

768.40a

14.27

0.000

a,b,c. Mean values within rows without common superscript differ at p<0.05

The zinc content obtained in this study was higher than that of Robledo and Pelegrin (1997) was 2.41 ppm. The low results of Robledo and Pelegrin (1997) research are due to differences in sample processing procedures before analysis. Robledo and Pelegrin (1997) after obtaining samples washed with seawater then rinsed with deionized water then dried at a temperature of 105C to constant weight and then ground.

The micro-mineral content of sun-drying and oven drying has not reduced the mineral content of seaweed. Sun-drying with a temperature of 32 to 34 oC for 21 hours in three days where every day it dries for 7 hours, while oven-drying with a temperature of 55oC for 96 hours in four days is constant. Mineral content in general decreases when boiled in boiling water at 100oC for 20 minutes (Santoso et al 2006).


Conclusions

The sun-drying method produces a higher mineral content, namely calcium, magnesium and cobalt and is preferred because of its lower cost.


Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the Directorate of Resources, Directorate General of Higher Education, Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia for the financial support of the study through Domestic Postgraduate Education Scholarships (BPPDN).


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