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Response of cattle fed with ammoniated maize stover, Indigofera zollingeriana leaves and Urea Palm Sugar Block (UPSB) supplementation

Charles L Kaunang1, Endang Pudjihastuti, Selvie D Anis, Jein R Leke, L J M Rumokoy and U Paputungan

Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado Indonesia
1 Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Science, University of Sam Ratulangi
charleskaunang@unsrat.ac.id
Jln Kampus UNSRAT Manado 95115 North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Abstract

This study aimed to assess the effect of ammoniated maize stover feeding with Indigofera foliage and Urea Palms Sugar Block (UPSB) supplementation on growth and feed conversion of local cattle. This study used a randomized design with four treatments. The parameters observed were dry matter intake (DMI), daily weight gain (DWG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR).

The treatments tested were

IZ0: (ad lib ammoniated maize stover);

IZ50: 50% Indigofera zollingeriana+ 50% ammoniated maize stover + 500 g UPSB and concentrate at 1% of body weight;

IZ60: 60% Indigofera zollingeriana + 40% ammoniated maize stover + 500 g UPSB and concentrate at 1% of body weight;

IZ70: 70% Indigofera zollingeriana+ 30% ammoniated maize stover + 500 g UPSB and concentrate at 1% of body weight.

All three criteria of animal performance – DM intake, liveweight gain and feed conversion were improved with curvilinear trends as the proportion of Indigofera in the diet was increased (Table 3; Figures 3-5).

Keywords: ammonification, maize stover, Indigofera zollingeriana


Introduction

Maize stover in Indonesia consists of 7,015,950 tons of dry matter; 25,056,965.21 tons of crude protein and 3,367,656.1 tons of raw materials (Sukria 2014). Use of fresh maize stover as forage is the most affordable choice, though its low digestibility. The biggest components of maize stover are cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and indigestible ash. Nutritional value of maize stover can be enhanced by various ammonia processing methods (Van Soest 1994; Donkin et al 2013; Yuartono et al 2020). Indigofera zollingeriana is animal forage which well known for its high protein content, very tolerant during dry season, waterlogging, and resistant to salinity (Hassen et al 2007). Nutritional supplementation can be enhanced by utilizing legumes as source of protein and adding mineral eg. urea molasses block (Elias et al 2015).

In improving the quality of forage, particularly increasing the crude protein, feed digestibility and palatability, a combination of ammoniated maize stover, Indigofera zollingeriana and UPSB is done to compliment the nutrients obtained by the body, so there is balanced nutrients for optimal production. Brown sugar contained in UPSB is an easily digestible carbohydrate that acts a source of carbohydrate and carbon skeleton for protein involved in synthesis of microbial cell walls. UPSB is expected to increase the microbial population in the rumen, in order to increase the feed digestibility and further increase the productivity of ruminants (Kaunang and Pudjihastuti 2019).


Materials and methods

This study lasted for 8 months. We included 16 male local-bred cattle, aged 3 years with body weight ranged 180-200 kg. The cattle were confined in individual pens (2x3x3 m3). We used maize stover and Indigofera zollingeriana as forage. The materials used to compose UPSB are shown in Table 1.

UPSB supplementation was given constantly with a dose of 500 grams/head/day (Kaunang 2000) along with the concentrate in the morning. After that, a mixture of ammoniated maize stover and Indigofera zollingeriana was given twice a day in the morning and evening. Indigofera zollingeriana was harvested after 60 days. Harvesting was done by clearing the plants from the stem to the leaves, and the rootstock was left for the growth of the next shoots. The plants were withered before being given with ammoniated maize stover according to the specified treatment. Drinking water was provided ad libitum.

The treatment rations were arranged as follows:

IZ0: ammoniated maize stover fed free choice

IZ50: Free access to a mixture (fresh basis) of 50% ammoniated maize stover + 50 % Indigofera zollingeriana+ 500 g of UPSB + concentrate fed at 1% of body weight.

IZ60: Free access to a mixture (fresh basis) of 40% ammoniated maize stover + 60% Indigofera zollingeriana+ 500 g of UPSB + concentrate at 1% of body weight.

IZ70. Free access to a mixture (fresh basis) of 30% ammoniated maize stover + 70% Indigofera zollingeriana+ 500 g of UPSB + concentrate at 1% of body weight.

Table 1. Composition of UPSB

Materials

% (air’dry basis)

Brown sugar

50%

Urea

4%

Rice bran

26%

Coconut cake

9%

Salt

2%

Minerals

9%

Total

100%

(Kaunang 2000)



Table 2. Composition of forage concentrate

Materials

Percentage

Rice bran

70%

Coconut cake

20%

Fish flour

9%

Bone flour

0.5%

Minerals

0.5%

Total

100%

Ammoniation technique was shown in Figure 1 (Kaunang dan Sane 2018 )

Ammoniation technique, particulary the dry method, was described as follows. Ingredients consist of 100 kg of dried maize stover, 4 kg of urea (4% of overall ingredients). First, urea was sprinkled over the maize stover and stirred evenly. Then, this mixture was wrapped in a plastic bag and secured tightly in anaerobic condition. The plastic bag containing this mixture was stored for 3 weeks.

Figure 1. Ammonification technique


Figure 2. UPSB composing technique


Photo 1. Indigofera zollingeriana with harvest age of 60 days Photo 2. Mixture of Indigofera and ammoniated maize stover
Measurement and analysis

The parameters measured in this study were dry matter intake, daily live weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR).

The experimental design was a completely randomized block with 4 treatments and 4 replications with 16 cattle in individual pens. Data were evaluated by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s multiple range tests (Steel and Torie 1993). Polynomial regression was fitted to the growth data using Microsoft Excel software.


Result and discussion

All three criteria of animal performance – DM intake, liveweight gain and feed conversion were improved with curvilinear trends as the proportion of Indigofera in the diet was increased (Table 3; Figures 3-5).

Table 3. Mean values for DM intake live weight gain and feed conversion of cattle fed hey basil diet of ammoniated maize stover supplemented with increasing levels of Indigofera

Treatments

SEM

p

IZ0

IZ50

IZ60

IZ70

DM intake, kg/d

6.56d

8.88c

9.67b

10.88a

0.039

0.000

LWgain,kg/dd

0.40d

0.88c

0.95b

1.40a

0.015

0.000

FCR

19.39d

11.80c

10.17b

7.60a

0.227

0.000

abcd Different superscripts in line with the rows indicated a highly significant different (p<0.01)

Dry matter intake

ANOVA test showed that the feeding of ammoniated corn stover with Indigofera zollingeriana and UPSB supplementation in the ration had highly significant effect (p<0.01) on DMI. Post-hoc analysis showed IZ70 treatment was highly significant (p<0.01) among treatments (IZ0, IZ50 and IZ60). DMI was increase with a curvilinear trend as the proportion of Indigofera in diet was increased (Figure 3). Furthermore, the IZ60 treatment was highly significant (p<0.01) from IZ0 and IZ50 treatments. DMI in this study ranged from 6.56-10.88 kg. This result is higher than some previous studies by Purbowati and Purnomoadi (2005), namely 3.21 kg/day and Kerl (1982), namely 4.0-5.6 kg/day in cattle weighed 200-250 kg. Meanwhile, Nurdiati et al (2012) reported a DMI of 8.42 kg/day. Forage consumption is influenced by several factors: fiber digestibility, feed flow rate and protein status (Wallace and Newbold 1992); physical and chemical properties of forage, production, live weight and digestive tract development (Parakkasi 1999). Many factors influenced the level of ration consumption including forage digestibility and palatability, cattle breed, sex, age, livestock health conditions, physical capacity of stomach and conditions of digestive tract (Sari et al 2016).

Daily body weight gain

We found that the feeding of ammoniated maize stover with Indigofera zollingeriana and UPSB supplementation in the ration had highly significant effect (p<0.01) on daily weight gain. Post-hoc analysis showed the IZ70 treatment was highly significant ( p<0.01) than the other treatments (IZ0, IZ50 and IZ60. Live weight gain was increased with a curvilinear trend as the proportion of Indigofera in diet was increased (Figure 4). Furthermore, the IZ60 treatment was highly significant (p<0.01) from IZ0 and IZ50 treatments. Body weight ranged from 0.40 to 1.40 kg/head/day in this study. Siregar et al (2002) reported the same range of DBWH, namely 0.90 kg/day. Leguminose in the forage has better protein content than the ration without Indigofera zollingeriana. This leguminose could encourage the provision of protein supply for nitrogen synthesis of the rumen microbiota, which is the used for ruminant’s growth (Ginting 2005).

Feed conversion rate

Feed conversion rate (FCR) is a ratio measuring the efficiency of livestock to convert feed into the desired output. The mean FCR in this study is shown in table 3. The highest FCR was shown by cattle in IZ0 treatment (19.39), followed by IZ50 treatment (11.80), IZ60 treatment (10.17) and IZ70 treatment (7.60).

ANOVA test showed that treatments in this study had a highly significant effect (p<0.01) on FCR. In post-hoc analysis, we found that IZ70 treatment was highly significant (p<0.01) and lower than the other treatments (IZ0, IZ50 and IZ60). DM feed conversion was improved with a curvilinear trend as the proportion of Indigofera in diet was increased (Figure 5).

Furthermore, IZ60 treatment was highly significant different (p <0.01) from the IZ0 and IZ50 treatments. The high FCR value of the control treatment (IZ0), was due to the feed composition which consisted of ammoniated maize stover (100%) only, compared to the feed composition in the IZ50, IZ60 and IZ70 treatments which consisted of concentrate, ammoniated corn stover, Indigofera zollingeriana and UPSB, that had more balanced nutritional value in accordance of livestock’s needs, so it can be absorbed optimally and could optimize the body weight gain. The efficiency of feed can be measured by the value of FCR, the smaller FCR, the more efficient the livestock used feed for production (Handarini et al 2016). Martawidjay et al (1999) showed that feed conversion, particularly in ruminants was influenced by feed quality, body weight gain and digestibility.

Figure 3. DMI was increased with a curvilinear trend as the
proportion of Indigofera in diet was increased
Figure 4. Live weight gain was increased with a curvilinear trend as
the proportion of Indigofera in diet was increased

Figure 5. DM feed conversion was improved with a curvilinear trend
as the proportion of Indigofera in diet was increased


Conclusion

All three criteria of animal performance – DM intake, liveweight gain and feed conversion were improved with curvilinear trends as the proportion of Indigofera zollingeriana in the diet was increased.


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