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Production performance and physiological responses of Guinea fowls fed different levels of dietary moringa leaf meal

Clement Gyeabour Kyere, Patrick Atta Poku Jnr, Michael Boateng1, David Okyere Korankye2 and Grace Twumasi3

Department of Science, Seventh-day Adventist College of Education, Post Office Box 29, Agona-Ashanti, Ghana
kyere.clement@yahoo.com
1 Department of Animal Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana
2 Department of Animal Science Education, Faculty of Agriculture Education, University of Education, Winneba, P O Box 40, Mampong-Ashanti, Ghana
3 College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the production performance and physiological responses of the pearl Guinea fowl fed different levels of moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf meal in Ghana. One hundred and twenty pearl Guinea fowl keets aged day-old, were used for the study and the experiment lasted for twenty-four weeks. The birds were randomly assigned to four treatment dietary groups (Control 0%, 9%M, 12%M and 15%M) of 30 birds each with 3 replicates (10 birds per replicate) in a completely randomized design. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance with the aid of GenStat version 11.1 (2008). Results from this study showed that birds fed with diet containing 12% moringa leaf meal gained significant (p<0.05) higher body weight, body weight gain and daily weight gain and lower in birds fed with the control diet. Feed consumption significantly (p<0.05) decreased with an increase in dietary moringa leaf meal inclusion levels. Guinea fowls fed with dietary moringa leaf meal had superior feed conversion ability except 9% moringa leaf meal inclusion level. Guinea fowls fed with dietary moringa leaf meal significantly (p<0.05) laid earlier while, birds fed with the control diet spent more days before commencing egg laying. The highest (p<0.05) egg weight was observed among birds fed diet containing 9%, 12% and 15% moringa leaf meal inclusion levels. The highest (p<0.05) hen-day egg production and percentage hen-day egg production was observed among birds fed with diet containing 15% moringa leaf meal inclusion level. The inclusion of moringa leaf meal had significant (p<0.05) effect on blood pH, chlorine and potassium but not significant (p>0.05) on calcium and sodium

It was concluded that moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf meal can be included in the diet of Guinea fowls up to 15% inclusion level without adverse effects on their production performance.

Keywords: guinea fowl, moringa, neem, growth performance, physiological responses


Introduction

Guinea fowl production and consumption in Ghana plays a significant role in the country's agricultural sector and local cuisine (Naazie et al 2007). Ghana has a long history of domesticating Guinea fowl for meat and egg production (Teye et al 2003). The birds are well adapted to the local environment and are relatively easy to rear. Guinea fowl production is primarily carried out by small-scale farmers and households, although there are also commercial farms dedicated to poultry production (Nahashon et al 2006). The birds are usually reared in free-range or semi-intensive systems, allowing them to forage for insects, seeds, and other natural foods. Guinea fowl production is spread across various regions in Ghana, areas like the Ashanti, Bono, Bono East, Ahafo and Northern regions are known for higher numbers of Guinea fowl farms.

Guinea fowl meat is highly regarded in Ghana for its flavor and nutritional value (Nahashon et al 2006). It is considered leaner than chicken and has a unique gamey taste. Traditional Ghanaian dishes like "akple" (fermented cornmeal dumplings) and "gboma" soup often feature Guinea fowl meat. The meat is also used in soups, stews, and grilled or roasted preparations, and it is often served on special occasions, festivals, and gatherings. In addition to meat, Guinea fowl eggs are also consumed, although their production is relatively lower compared to chicken eggs. Guinea fowl eggs have a stronger flavor and are often preferred by consumers (Teye et al 2003).

Due to its popularity and demand, Guinea fowl meat is often more expensive than chicken or other poultry meats in local markets in Ghana. However, in Ghana the productivity of indigenous Guinea fowls is very low due to poor feeding regimes and an increase in the population of pathogenic microorganisms. The rise in pathogenic microorganisms in livestock production has affected poultry farmers to meet the demand of consumers’ (Ifeanyi and Bratte 2015). This has attracted a lot of researchers to investigate into several non-conventional plants extract with high antimicrobial properties to reduce microbial infections from farm animals. The addition of moringa (Moringa oleifera) and leaf meal as a possible replacement for synthetic antibiotic growth promoters (Ifeanyi and Bratte 2015), help to reduce microbial load, feed cost and reduce competition between man and the livestock industry for the available conventional feedstuffs (Muriu et al 2002). The aim of every farmer is to reduce the cost of production by using cheaper and unconventional feed resources, reduce mortalities and to achieve high productivity (Alu 2010).

Using moringa leaf meal as a feed ingredient for poultry birds, such as Guinea fowls, chickens or turkeys, can provide several benefits. Moringa leaf meal, derived from the leaves of the moringa tree (Moringa oleifera), is known for its high nutritional value and potential health benefits. Moringa leaf meal is rich in protein, essential amino acids, vitamins (A, B, C, and E), minerals (calcium, iron, potassium, and magnesium), and antioxidants (AbouSekken 2015). The high protein content of moringa leaf meal makes it a valuable ingredient in poultry diets, promoting growth and development. The presence of vitamins and minerals contributes to the overall health and immune system of the birds (Ogbe 2012).

Moringa leaf meal can be used as a feed supplement, added to the birds' regular diet to enhance its nutritional composition. It can be included in the feed formulation as a partial replacement for other protein sources, such as soybean meal or fish meal (Ogbe 2012). However, it's important to consider the appropriate inclusion levels and balance the diet to meet the specific nutrient requirements of the poultry species and growth stage.

Studies have shown that incorporating moringa leaf meal in poultry diets can positively impact growth performance, including weight gain and feed conversion ratio (AbouSekken 2015; Ogbe 2012). The bioactive compounds present in moringa leaves contribute to improved digestion, nutrient utilization, and overall productivity of the birds. Moringa leaf meal is known for its potential health benefits, including antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. The bioactive compounds in moringa leaves, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, may help in preventing or reducing the occurrence of certain poultry diseases (Ogbe 2012).

The main objective of this study was to investigate the production performance and physiological responses of the pearl Guinea fowl fed different levels of moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf meal in Ghana.


Materials and methods

The study was carried out at the Poultry Unit of the Animal farm of the Department of Animal Science Education, University of Education, Winneba, Mampong-Ashanti campus, Ghana, from 2017-2018. Mampong-Ashanti lies in the transitional zone between the Guinea savanna zone of the north and the tropical rain forest of the south of Ghana along the Kumasi-Ejura road. Mampong-Ashanti is the capital town of the Mampong Municipality of the Ashanti Region. Mampong-Ashanti is located 60 km North-East of Kumasi on the Kumasi-Ejura road. Mampong-Ashanti lies in the transitional zone between the Guinea Savanna zone of the north and the tropical rain forest of the south of Ghana. Mampong-Ashanti lies between latitude 07 o 04’ degrees north and longitude 01 o 24’ degrees west with an altitude of 457m above sea level. Maximum and minimum annual temperatures recorded during the study period were 30.6oC and 21.2oC, respectively (Meteorological Service Department, 2017). Rainfall pattern in the district is bimodal, occurring from April to July (major rainy season) and again from August to November (minor rainy season), with about 1224mm per annum. The dry season occurs from December to March (Aryee 2018). The vegetation is transitional savanna woodland, which guarantees proper poultry keeping on free range basis.

Fresh leaves of moringa (Moringa oleifera) were harvested around the Animal farm of the University and spread out evenly to dry under sunlight for five (5) days until the leaves were crispy to touch. The dry leaves were milled to a fine powdered state. Samples of the moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf meal were subjected to laboratory analysis to determine their proximate composition (Keller 1984). The experimental diets were formulated such that they contained milled moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf meal at 0% (Control), 9%M, 12%M and 15%M inclusion levels in the starter, grower and breeder diets respectively (Tables 1, 2 and 3).

Table 1. Ingredients and compositions (%) of starter diet

Control

9%M

12%M

15%M

Moringa (M)

0.00

9.00

12.0

15.0

Maize

57.0

54.0

52.5

52.0

Wheat bran

11.0

8.50

8.50

6.00

Soya bean meal

9.00

8.00

7.00

7.00

Tuna fish meal

8.00

6.50

6.00

6.00

Anchovy fish meal

12.0

11.0

11.0

11.0

Oyster shell

1.50

1.50

1.50

1.50

Dicalcium phosphate

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

Vitamin premix

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

Salt

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50



Table 2. Ingredients and compositions (%) of grower diet

Cont.

9%M

12%M

15%M

Moringa (M)

0.00

9.00

12.0

15.0

Maize

63.0

60.5

56.0

58.0

Wheat bran

22.0

18.5

16.0

17.0

Soya bean meal

3.00

2.00

3.00

2.00

Tuna fish meal

4.00

3.00

4.00

2.00

Anchovy fish meal

5.00

4.00

6.00

3.00

Oyster shell

1.50

1.50

1.50

1.50

Dicalcium phosphate

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

Vitamin premix

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

Salt

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50



Table 3. Ingredients and compositions (%) of breeder diet

0%

9%M

12%M

15%M

Moringa (M)

0.00

9.00

12.0

15.0

Maize

55.0

50.0

50.0

50.0

Wheat bran

19.5

18.5

16.5

14.5

Soya bean meal

4.00

3.00

2.50

2.00

Tuna fish meal

4.50

4.50

4.00

3.00

Anchovy fish meal

8.00

6.00

6.00

6.50

Oyster shell

7.50

7.50

7.50

7.50

Dicalcium phosphate

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

Vitamin premix

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

Salt

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

One hundred and twenty pearl Guinea fowl keets aged day-old, were used in the twenty-four-week experiment. The birds were randomly assigned to four treatment dietary groups (Control 0%, 9%M, 12%M and 15%M) of 30 birds each with 3 replicates (10 birds per replicate) in a completely randomized design.

The birds were reared under similar managerial conditions. The experimental diets and clean water were supplied to the birds ad libitum throughout the period.

Parameters measured

The birds were weighed at the beginning of the experiment and at the end of the experiment to obtain their initial and final body weight respectively. Feed intake was recorded daily. Feed conversion ratio was computed as the feed intake divided by weight gain. Vaccination and other routine poultry practices were also carried out.

Age at first egg (days): The age at first egg was estimated to be the age at which five percent of the pullets laid their first egg. After the pullets in each replicate had laid their first eggs the average (mean) age at first egg lay was calculated for each treatment.

Egg weight at first egg laying: Egg weight at first egg laying (g) was determined by weighing individual eggs collected with the use of A&D Weighing EK-6000i electronic balance.

Hen-day egg production (HDEP): Hen-day egg production was determined for the daily egg production.

At the end of the feeding phase, two birds were randomly selected from each replicate, making a total of 48 birds. Blood samples were collected between 7.30 and 8.30 am from the armpit (under the wing) of the bird using a sterile vacutainer tubes. A cotton swab soaked in methylated spirit was used to dilate the veins and to prevent infection. Five mL of blood was carefully drawn from each bird and used for the electrolytes analysis. The blood sample for the serum biochemical assay was allowed to clot at room temperature. The clotted samples were spun in a centrifuge to separate the blood cells from the serum. The serum was then analyzed for; blood pH, Ca2+, nmol/L, Cl-, nmol/L, K+, nmol/L and Na+, nmol/L as described by Keller 1984.

Data collected were analyzed using GenStat (Version 11.1) and the treatment means were separated by the least significant difference (LSD) according to the procedure of Steel and Torrie (1980) to determine which of the treatments has significant difference or not, at 5% probability level (Obi 1990).


Results and discussion

Proximate composition of moringa and neem leaf meal

Results of proximate composition of moringa leaf meal is presented in Table 4. The proximate results revealed that moringa leaf meal is rich in carbohydrate, appreciable levels of crude fiber, rich in crude protein. The levels of dry matter, ether extracts, nitrogen free extracts, moisture, total ash and metabolizable energy were within the range reported by Okiki et al (2015). The carbohydrate content of moringa leaf meal in this studyis high compared to that reported by Okiki et al (2015) and suggests that it could be a good supplement as well as a source of energy and structural materials. The fibre content of M oleifera in this study is adequate in relation to diet and it is in agreement with previous studies conducted by Valdez-Solana et al (2015).

The protein value obtained from moringa leaf meal in this study suggests that M. oleiferais a good source protein making it suitable for feeding Guinea fowl and can effectively contribute to the daily protein required by the bird (Okiki et al 2015). According to the report of Okiki et al (2015), plant food that provides more than 12% of its caloric value from protein is considered a good source of protein. The moisture content in leaves of M. oleifera in this study is within the expected range (Okiki et al 2015). High moisture contents in leaves make them highly perishable and susceptible to microbial spoilage during storage (Okiki et al 2015; Sultana, 2020). The relatively low moisture content in M. oleifera would prevent the growth of microorganisms and prolong storage life (Okiki et al 2015).

The ether extract (Fat) content reported in this study is moderate when compared to those from other plants. Dietary fats function in the increase of palatability of food by absorbing and retaining flavours. The ash value obtained in this study suggests that the M oleifera are a good source of inorganic minerals. High ash content in food is a measure of high deposit of mineral contents (Sultana, 2020). A diet providing 1 – 2% of its caloric of energy as fat is said to be sufficient to human beings as excess fat consumption is implicated in certain cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, cancer and aging (Okiki et al 2015).

Table 4. Proximate compositions of moringa leaf meal

Attributes

Moringa leaf meal

Carbohydrate, %

26.6 1.53

Crude fibre, %

13.3 0.08

Crude protein, %

28.9 0.21

Dry matter, %

89.6 0.45

Ether extracts, %

5.32 0.21

Nitrogen free extracts, %

33.9 0.21

Moisture, %

10.4 0.05

Total ash, %

7.13 0.04

ME, kcal/kg

2043 55.7

Phytochemical compositions of moringa leaf meal

Table 5 shows the results of phytochemical compositions of moringa leaf meal.

Table 5. Phytochemical compositions of moringa leaf meal

Attributes

Moringa leaf meal

Apigenin, g/g

25.4 2.19

Alkaloid, g/g

1.76 0.96

Chlorogenic acid, g/g

295 11.4

Flavonoid, mg/gm

61.7 2.33

Kaempferol, g/g

51.2 1.86

Luteolin, g/g

45.4 2.02

Quercetin, g/g

48.5 1.80

Saponin, g/g

7.43 2.10

The results revealed the presence of high levels of apigenin, kaempferol, quercetin and luteolin as compared to the reference values. However, chlorogenic acid was far below the reference value as shown in table 15. Results of this study are consistent with those reported by Valdez-Solana et al (2015) who reported high levels of chlorogenic acid (286.13 15.09 g/g), kaempferol (46.43 2.14 g/g), quercetin (46.18 0.6 g/g) and luteolin (44.56 2.03 g/g).

Proximate composition of the experimental diets

The proximate composition of the starter, grower and breeder diets are shown in Table 6. Results from the proximate analysis (Table 6) revealed that the levels of ash, crude protein, crude fibre, dry matter and metabolizable energy in the starter, grower and breeder diets increased with increasing levels of dietary moringa leaf meal as compared with the control diet. The control treatment recorded the highest levels of moisture and ether extract in the starter, grower and breeder diets. All the diets formulated at different phases of growth met the nutrient requirement for Guinea fowls as suggested by Okyere et al (2020).

Table 6. Nutrient composition of the starter, grower and breeder diets

Cont.

9%M

12%M

15%M

Starter diet

Ash, %

15.5

15.8

15.9

16.0

Crude protein, %

20.1

20.3

20.9

21.0

Crude fibre, %

3.49

3.78

4.52

4.71

Moisture, %

10.3

9.85

9.74

9.71

Ether extract, %

4.22

3.19

3.94

3.75

DM, %

90.9

92.2

91.2

91.5

ME, kcal/kg

2841

2851

2876

2879

Grower diet

Ash, %

15.9

16.2

16.7

16.9

Crude protein, %

16.0

16.2

16.4

16.5

Crude fibre, %

3.43

3.49

3.55

3.56

Moisture, %

10.5

10.0

10.0

9.96

Ether extract, %

4.23

4.19

4.21

4.16

DM, %

90.6

91.7

91.9

91.1

ME, kcal/kg

2803

2809

2809

2819

Breeder diet

Ash, %

16.8

17.2

17.1

17.3

Crude protein, %

14.1

14.7

14.7

14.7

Crude fibre, %

3.84

3.89

3.92

3.98

Moisture, %

10.2

9.92

9.89

9.83

Ether extract, %

4.47

4.45

4.40

4.38

DM, %

89.8

89.9

90.1

90.2

ME, kcal/kg

2744

2754

2751

2752

DM = Dry matter; ME= Metabolizable Energy

Growth performance of Guinea fowls fed moringa and neem leaf meal

The growth performance results (Figures 1 and 2, Table 7) showed that birds fed with diet containing 12% moringa leaf meal gained significant (p<0.05) higher body weight, body weight gain and daily weight gain and lower in birds fed with the control diet. The improved body weight, body weight gain and daily weight gain of birds fed with 12% moringa leaf meal could be attributed to the higher crude protein content of the diet due to the inclusion of moringa leaf meal which were metabolized and used efficiently for growth. The reduction in body weight, body weight gain and daily weight gain of birds fed with the control diet could be attributed to the lower dietary protein, feed intake and the higher crude fibre content of the diet which may have affected nutrient digestion and absorption (Onu and Aniebo 2011). This corresponds with the results reported by Kudke et al (1999).

Figure 1. Influence of moringa leaf meal on body weight gain Figure 2. Influence of moringa and leaf meal on feed conversion ratio


Table 7. Growth performance of the pearl Guinea fowl fed MLM

Parameters

Cont.

9%M

12%M

15%M

SEM

p

Initial body weight, g/bird

25.0

25.0

24.5

25.0

0.68

0.71

Final body weight, kg/bird

1.55

1.60

1.62

1.58

30.7

0.01

Body weight gain, kg/bird

1.53

1.58

1.60

1.56

30.5

0.01

Daily weight gain, g/bird

9.08

9.40

9.52

9.27

0.18

0.01

Total feed intake, kg/bird

3.75

3.89

3.73

3.69

42.1

001

Daily feed intake, g/bird

22.3

23.2

22.2

21.9

0.25

0.01

Feed conversion ratio, g/bird

2.46

2.46

2.33

2.37

0.05

0.01

abc Means bearing different superscripts in the same row are different at p<0.05. SEM= standard error of means. Cont.= Control, M= Moringa leaf meal, p = probability of main effects

Feed consumption significantly (p<0.05) decreased with an increase in dietary moringa leaf meal inclusion levels. The reduction in feed consumption among birds fed with dietary moringa leaf meal could be attributed to the reduced palatability of the diet due to the inclusion of moringa leaf meal as reported by Kakengi et al (2003) and Kyere et al (2018). There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the feed conversion ratio values across the moringa leaf meal diets except birds fed with dietary 9% moringa leaf meal. This suggests that, with the exception of birds fed with dietary 9% moringa leaf meal, birds fed with all the other moringa leaf meal-based diets adequately utilized the nutrients they consumed and converted to body weight. This observation agrees with the finding of (Onu and Aniebo 2011).

Laying performance of Guinea fowls fed dietary moringa leaf meal

Age at first egg (AAFE) laying significantly (p<0.05) reduced with the inclusion of moringa leaf meal in the diets. Guinea fowls fed with dietary moringa leaf meal significantly (p<0.05) laid earlier while, birds fed with the control diet spent more days before commencing egg laying (Table 8).

Table 8. Laying performance of the pearl Guinea fowl fed MLM

Parameters

Cont.

9%M

12%M

15%M

SEM

p

Av. Age at first egg, days

198

200

193

192

2.26

0.04

Av. Egg weight at first egg, g

34.3

42.8

41.3

43.4

2.15

0.01

Av. Monthly egg production

15.0

15.7

16.0

18.0

0.93

0.01

Av. Hen-day egg production

0.62

0.65

0.67

0.75

0.03

0.01

Av. Hen-day egg production, %

62.5

65.3

66.7

75.0

3.87

0.01

abc Means bearing different superscripts in the same row are different at p<0.05. SEM= standard error of means, Av.=Average, Cont.= Control, M= Moringa leaf meal, p = probability of main effects

The significant differences observed among Guinea fowls fed with diet containing moringa leaf meal treatment groups and the control treatment could be explained that the physiological processes occurring during rearing which underly ovarian function are reflected solely in the body weight and protein nutrition of broiler breeders at first egg and egg weight at first egg laying and that increased dietary moringa leaf meal increased fat mobilization for the formation of follicles to release egg (Moreki and Gabanakgosi 2014). This study recorded high levels of protein in the moringa leaf meal (Table 6) as compared with the control diet. Proteins are the key factors which promote egg laying. Hence, inclusion of moringa leaf meal in the diet will increase the levels of proteins leading to early laying. Similar effects on early egg laying due to inclusion of moringa leaf meal were reported by Kudke et al (1999).

Table 8 revealed that the highest (p<0.05) egg weight was observed among birds fed diet containing 9%, 12% and 15 % moringa leaf meal inclusion levels and the lowest egg weight was recorded in birds fed with the control diet. This could be explained that moringa contains higher level of protein hence when added to the diet will shield the intestine from pathogens and perform a crucial function in calcium absorption during follicular growth and development of the egg. Moringa based protein in the diet promote rapid production of muscle protein, hormones and enzymes responsible for egg production. This reflected in this study as Guinea fowls fed with moringa leaf meal recorded highest egg weight. This trend is similar to the findings obtained by Olugbemi (2010).

Results from this study (Table 8) show that the highest (p<0.05) hen-day egg production and percentage hen-day egg production was observed in birds fed diet containing 15% moringa leaf meal inclusion level and the lowest was recorded in birds fed with the control diet. This could be attributed to the composition of proteins in the moringa leaf meal effects and subsequently, on feed utilization (Kakengi et al 2003). The results of this study (Table 8) are supported by the study of earlier researchers who reported that egg weight at first egg laying and hen-day egg production increased with increasing levels of moringa leaf meal in the diet at sexual maturity (AbouSekken, 2015; Onu and Aniebo 2011) and attributed the increase in egg weight at first egg laying and hen-day egg production to increase in body weight at first egg resulting from fat deposition.

Physiological responses of Guinea fowls fed moringa leaf meal

The inclusion of moringa leaf meal had significant (p<0.05) effect on blood pH, chlorine and potassium but not significant (p>0.05) on calcium and sodium (Table 9).

Table 9. Physiological responses of Guinea fowl fed MLM

Parameters

Cont.

9%M

12%M

15%M

SEM

p

Blood pH

7.13

7.28

7.29

7.26

0.05

0.01

Ca2+, nmol/L

4.43

5.03

5.00

4.33

0.71

0.55

Cl-, nmol/L

106

106

126

97.7

7.09

0.02

K+, nmol/L

4.97

4.60

5.27

3.80

0.71

0.03

Na+, nmol/L

158

162

174

163

7.19

0.49

abc Means bearing different superscripts in the same row are different at p<0.05. SEM= standard error of means, Av.=Average, Cont.= Control, M= Moringa leaf meal, p = probability of main effects

Guinea fowls fed dietary 12% moringa leaf meal recorded the highest blood pH and this could be attributed to the variations in the levels of moringa and neem leaf meal in the diets. The highest blood pH 7.29 observed among Guinea fowls fed dietary 12% moringa leaf meal was within the normal blood pH of 7.36 – 7.44 reported by the Chiodi and Terman (1965) for domestic hen. The physiological reasons underlying the significant difference in blood pH observed is an indication that Guinea fowls fed dietary 12% moringa leaf meal will have a good respiratory and metabolic functioning. This observation agrees with the findings of Chiodi and Terman (1965).

Birds fed dietary 12%M had the highest level of chlorine indicating that, physiologically the birds were healthy and were responding well to the physiological changes in the body due to the inclusion of moringa in the diet. Adrogu and Madias (2019) reported that reduction in chlorine levels in birds, results in improper balance of body fluids and consequent disturbance of acid-based balance in the body. This corroborates with the reports of Pandian et al (2012).

Guinea fowls supplemented with dietary 12% moringa leaf meal had the highest levels of potassium indicating that the birds were free from diseases and had a good balance diet. Hence, Guinea fowls fed 12% moringa leaf meal combination will have a very good heart functioning. Pandian et al (2012) reported that, potassium deficiency results in arrhythmia or an irregular heartbeat, heart failure, increased hematocrit and subsequent shock and death. This observation is inline with the reports of Adrogu and Madias (2019).


Conclusion


Acknowledgement

The authors are grateful to the Department of Animal Science Education, Faculty of Agriculture Education, University of Education, Winneba, for providing all the facilities for this study.


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