Livestock Research for Rural Development 35 (7) 2023 LRRD Search LRRD Misssion Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

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Effect of supplementing yeast fermented broken rice in diets on growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal health of Ac chicken in the Mekong Delta

Nguyen Thi Kim Dong and Nguyen Van Thu1

College of Applied Biology, Tay Do University, Vietnam
ntkdong@tdu.edu.vn
1 College of Agriculture, Can Tho University, Vietnam

Abstract

A study of effect of dietary supplementation levels of yeast fermented broken rice (YFBR) of Ac chicken was carried out to evaluate growth performance, carcass characteristics and intestinal health. One hundred fifty Ac chicken at 15 days of age with average live weight of 96.20.69 g/bird were arranged in a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replicates. The treatments were (YFBR) supplementation levels of 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5and 6% (DM basis) of the concentrate diets, corresponding to YFBR0, YFBR1.5, YFBR3, YFBR4.5 and YFBR6 treatments with 10 chicken per experimental unit. The results of the experiment showed that the DM, CP, EE and ME intakes were significantly lower (p<0.05) for the birds supplemented FBRY6 than the remains. The daily weight gain and final weight were significantly improved when the birds supplemented YFBR, and the highest results were found for the YFBR4.5 treatment (p<0.05). The results of slaughter weight, carcass, breast meat and thigh meat weights for the birds supplemented YFBR diets were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those in the FYBR0 treatment. In conclusion was that at level of 4.5% yeast fermented broken rice added in the concentrate diet gave the higher growth performance and carcass values, better FCR and decreased density of E. coliand C. perfringensin the excreta leading to enhancing intestinal health of Ac chicken.

Key words: Ac chicken, yeast fermented broken rice, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, growth rate, intestinal health


Introduction

Ac chicken (also called Vietnamese black-bone chicken), which often have white feathers with small size (around 1.0 kg) and are widely raised in the whole country in the backyards or commercial farms, due to the higher price compared to other native chicken. This chicken breed possesses several particular qualities including bluish-gravy skin, pitch-black bones and five toes on each foot. They are often used to make special chicken soup and other nutritious dishes, as its meat is considered more nutritious compared to those of other breeds (Wikipedia, 2023). The yeast fermented rice with Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementing in diets of cattle showed the improvements of growth performance and greenhouse gas emissions (Sangkhom et al 2017 and Nguyen Van Thu et al 2022). Santin et al (2001) concluded that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall supplementing in diets improved body weight gain in broiler chicken and that this effect can be attributed to the trophic effect of this product on the intestinal mucosa, because it increases villus height, particularly during the first 7 day of a chicken’s life. Besides, S. Cerevisiae encourages the development of beneficial bacteria in the gut and S. Cerevisiae also discourages the multiplication of bad bacteria (Yang et al 2008). Similarly, Ahiwe et al (2015) and Ahmed et al (2015) indicated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when used as probiotic (live yeast), or as prebiotic (autolyzed yeast and its components) could serve as a growth enhancer in healthy broiler chicken through ensuring improved gut health which leads to improved digestive enzyme activities, growth performance, meat yield, nutrient digestibility and flock uniformity. Therefore, the objective of this study aims to evaluate effects of the levels of yeast fermented broken rice supplementing in diets on growth, carcass values and intestinal health of Ac chicken for future research and applications.


Materials and methods

Location and time

The experiment was conducted at the Experimental farm in My Khanh village, Phong Dien district, Can Tho City from April to July in 2022.The chemical analysis of feeds and meat were done at the laboratory of the Faculty of Animal sciences, Agriculture University of Can Tho University.

Experimental animals and design

Two hundred Ac chicken at one day of age were purchased at the breed chicken farm in Tien Giang province of Vietnam. Prior to starting the experiment, all chicken was vaccinated against the Gumboro, Newcastle, H5N 1 and fowl pox diseases. They were incubated in 2 weeks and fed concentrate contained 22% CP and 2800 kcal/kgDM.

One hundred fifty Ac chicken at 2 weeks of age (96.70.69 g/bird) were selected and allotted in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 replicates, and 10 birds per experimental unit. The treatments were the different yeast fermented broken rice (YFBR) supplement levels of 0,1.5,3.0, 4.5 and 6.0%(DM) to diets, corresponding to the YFBR0, YFBR1.5, YFBR3, YFBR4.5 and YFBR6 treatments, respectively.

Chemical composition of feed ingredient was presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Chemical composition and ME value of feed ingredients in experiment (%DM)

Item

Broken rice

YFBR

Rice bran

Extracted soybean

Fish meal

DM

85.0

69.0

90.0

88.3

88.7

OM

99.6

99.6

89.1

93.9

80.1

CP

7.11

8.21

12.4

44.3

58.4

EE

1.56

3.20

11.9

3.10

11.8

CF

1.81

1.92

7.41

8.46

1.07

NDF

4.82

4.86

22.6

18.6

9.39

ADF

1.46

1.52

13.9

10.5

1.42

Ash

0.41

0.39

10.9

6.12

19.9

Lys

0.22

0.25

0.45

2.78

4.33

Met

0.19

0.2

0.21

0.57

1.45

Ca

0.17

0.22

0.35

0.28

5.11

P

0.23

0.21

0.3

0.56

2.81

ME,kcal/kg DM

3500

3530

2735

2269

3045

YFBR: yeast fermented broken rice, DM: dry matter, OM: organic matter, CP: crude protein,
EE: ether extraction, CF: crude fibre, NDF: neutral detergent fibre, ADF: acid detergent fibre,
Lys: lysine, Met: methionine, Ca: calcium, P: phosphor, ME: metabolisable energy (Janssen, 1989)

Feeds for the experiment

All feed ingredients were bought in one occasion from feed store in Can Tho City for throughout the experiment. The concentrate was formulated and contained 20%CP and 3000 kcal/kgDMand finely mixed with the yeast fermented broken rice following experimental design before feeding. All feed ingredients were analysed for chemical compositions (Table 1) before carrying out the trial.

Feed preparation

Yeast consisted of rice powder and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1 g is equal to 8.9 x 10 8 CFU)

- 500g broken rice added 2.5g yeast, mixed 100g water, the mixture was kept for 30 minutes.

- Yeast fermented broken rice was put in nylon bag, completely tired, at room temperature from 27-30 0C, after 3 days the yeast fermented broken rice had good smell and ready used for the experiment.

Table 2. Feed ingredient composition of experimental diets

Feed, % DM

YFBR, %

0

1.5

3

4.5

6

Broken rice

52.0

50.5

49.0

47.5

46.0

YFBR

0.0

1.5

3.0

4.5

6.0

Rice bran

17.7

17.7

17.7

17.7

17.7

Extracted SB

21.3

21.3

21.3

21.3

21.3

Fish meal

7.13

7.13

7.13

7.13

7.13

Lys

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

Met.

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

DCP

1.20

1.20

1.20

1.20

1.20

Premix

0.47

0.47

0.47

0.47

0.47

Total

100

100

100

100

100

YFBR: yeast fermented broken rice, YFBR0, YFBR1.5, YFBR3, YFBR4.5,YFBR6 were the treatments supplemented yeast fermented broken rice at level of 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6%, respectively.



Table 3. Chemical composition and ME values of experimental diets (%DM)

Item, %

YFBR, %

0

1.5

3

4.5

6

DM

87.0

86.8

86.4

86.1

85.9

OM

93.3

93.3

93.3

93.3

93.3

CP

19.5

19.5

19.5

19.5

19.6

EE

4.42

4.45

4.47

4.49

4.52

CF

4.13

4.13

4.13

4.13

4.14

NDF

11.1

11.1

11.1

11.1

11.1

ADF

5.56

5.56

5.56

5.55

5.56

Ash

6.67

6.68

6.67

6.67

6.67

Calci

0.84

0.85

0.84

0.85

0.85

P

0.702

0.702

0.700

0.701

0.699

Lys.

1.17

1.17

1.17

1.17

1.17

Met.

0.431

0.431

0.431

0.431

0.432

ME (Kcal/kg DM)

3006

3007

3008

3008

3008

DM: dry matter, OM: organic matter, CP: crude protein, EE: ether extraction, CF: crude fibre, NDF: neutral detergent fibre, ADF: acid detergent fibre, Lys: lysine, Met: methionine, Ca: calcium, P: phosphor. ME: metablolizable ernergy (Janssen, 1989)

Housing and management

Houses for birds were made by iron and steel wire net and a plastic sheet was placed under each cage floor to collect excreta. The birds were confined in each cage of 0.80 m2/10 birds.

In each of the pens, feeders and drinkers were installed and cleaned each morning. The chicken excreta were also removed each day.

The birds were fed 3 times daily at 7.00, 13.00 and 17.00h and the diets offered to the treatments were weekly adjusted according to actual feed intakes, and water being freely available.

Measurements taken

Daily intakes of feed and nutrients: Feed and refusals were collected and weighed daily morning.

The growth rate and feed conversion ratio: The birds were individually weighed weekly and at the end of experiment.

Carcass and meat quality: At the end of the trial, four birds chosen(two males and two females) were slaughtered for evaluating of their carcasses and meat quality.

Hematology blood and biochemistry blood parameters: Blood samples (5 ml) were collected from 4 birds (2 males and 2 females) per replicate. Blood was taken from the neck artery. The blood samples were used for the analysis of erythrocytes, hematocrit, and haemoglobin. Biochemistry blood criteria: Blood samples (5 ml) were taken for analysis of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose concentrations.

Bacteria density in Ac chicken excreta at 6 weeks of age: quantity of E. coli, Salmonella. spp and Clostridium perfringens in excreta samples were determine by the colony counting method. The excreta samples were directly collected at cloaca of 3 males and 3 females per unit. Then it was homogenous and transported to the Biology Laboratory of Analysis Service Center in Can Tho City.

Chemical analyses

Feeds offered were analysed for chemical compositions of DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, Ash following the procedures of AOAC (1990). While NDF and ADF analysis was followed the Van Soest et al. (1991) and ME was calculated following the formula suggested by Janssen (1989). Bacteria density in excreta were determined following specific methods: Salmonella. spp (Quantitative) by ISO-6579-1:2017; E. coli (Quantitative) was analysed according to ISO-16649-2-2021 and Clostridium perfringens (Quantitative) by ISO 7937.

Statistical analysis

Data were analysed by using General Linear Model (GLM) of Minitab 16.1.0 (Minitab, 2010) and the comparison of significant difference between two treatments was done by Tukey method of Minitab (2010).


Results and discussion

Daily feed and nutrient intakes

The daily feed and nutrient intakes of Ac chicken in experiment are presented in Table 4.

The intakes of concentrate significantly decreased when increasing YFBR levels in the diets, while YFBR intakes increased (p<0.05). The DM intake was significantly higher for the 4 first treatments than the last one (p<0.05). The CP and EE, CF and ME intakes were significantly lower for the YFBR6 treatment (p<0.05), probably due to lower DM consume. This was explained that the birds fed 6% YFBR were influenced by high yeast fermented broken rice amount leading to have more movements and noises than those in other treatments resulted in getting lower DM, CP, EE intakes.

Table 4. Daily feed, nutrient and metabolisable energy (ME) intakes of Ac chicken in experiment (g DM/bird)

Item

YFBR, %

SEM

p

0

1.5

3

4.5

6

DM Conc.

26.1ab

26.7a

24.8b

24.9b

22.6c

0.292

0.001

DM FBRY

0.00e

0.40d

0.77c

1.18b

1.46a

0.013

0.001

DM

26.1ab

27.1a

25.6b

26.1ab

24.0c

0.302

0.001

OM

25.2ab

26.2a

24.7b

25.1ab

23.2c

0.291

0.001

CP

5.13a

5.28a

5.03a

5.13a

4.73b

0.059

0.001

EE

1.16a

1.21a

1.15ab

1.18a

1.09b

0.014

0.002

CF

1.08a

1.12a

1.07ab

1.09a

1.01b

0.013

0.001

NDF

2.92a

3.03a

2.88ab

2.95a

2.73b

0.034

0.001

Ash

1.53a

1.56a

1.50a

1.50a

1.39b

0.018

0.001

Ca

0.04d

0.23a

0.22b

0.22ab

0.21c

0.002

0.001

P

0.04d

0.19a

0.18b

0.19ab

0.17c

0.002

0.001

Lys.

0.01d

0.33a

0.31b

0.32ab

0.29c

0.003

0.001

Met.

0.002d

0.13a

0.12b

0.13ab

0.11c

0.001

0.001

ME, kcal/bird

78.7ab

82.1a

77.2bc

79.1ab

73.0c

0.914

0.001

a .b. c. d Mean values with different superscripts within the same row are different at p<0 05
Growth performance and feed conversion ratio of Ac chicken supplemented yeast fermented broken rice

The growth rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of Ac chicken were showed in Table 5.

Table 5 . Daily weight gain, final weight and FCR of Ac chicken fed yeast fermented broken rice

Item

YFBR, %

SEM

p

0

 1.5

3

4.5

6

Initial weight

98.0

96.7

95.5

95.9

95.3

0.69

0.117

Final weight

606d

662bc

684ab

727a

635cd

9.88

0.001

Daily weight gain

12.1d

13.5bc

14.0ab

15.0a

12.9cd

0.23

0.001

FCR

2.16a

2.02ab

1.83bc

1.74c

1.87bc

0.04

0.001

FCR: feed conversion ratio, a b c d Mean values with different superscripts within the same row are different at p<0 05



Figure 1. Effect of YFBR supplement levels on DWG Figure 2. Effect of YFBR supplement levels on FCR

The daily weight gain (DWG) mean of male and female birds were significantly higher for the birds supplemented YFBR in the diets, reaching the highest value for the YFBR4.5 treatment (p<0.05) and the lowest for the birds without supplementing fermented yeast broken rice (YFBR0). The results of the final weight (FW) had the similar trend with the DWG of birds. The higher FW mean of both male and female was for the birds supplemented YFBR inthe diets and the highest results were found in the YFBR4.5 (p<0.05). This could be explained the birds fed fermented feed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae that stimulated feed digestion, enhanced nutrient digestibility and nutrient absorption resulted in increasing weight gain (Gibson et al 2017 and Lee et al 2022).

Higher feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly higher for the birds without adding yeast fermented broken rice (YFBR0), lower values with the birds fed the YFBR diets and the best data was found in the YFBR4.5 treatment (p<0.05), probably due to the highest DWG. The results in a present trial are consistent with the findings stated by Merati et al (2021) that Saccharomyces cerevisiaesupplementation in broiler feedimproved efficiency of feed conversion and may be associated with enhanced intestinal absorption. The positive results obtained above that were also recorded in some studies of Rafiqueet al. (2017), Afsharmanesh et al (2018), Kumar et al (2019), Santos et al (2021). It is because S. cerevisiae makes the better intestinal morphology and cell proliferation in terms of increased villi height and density (Lawrence-Azua et al 2018).

Carcass characteristic evaluation

The carcass quality values of Ac chicken supplemented yeast fermented broken rice in diets were showed in Table 6.

Table 6. Slaughter weights Carcass values of Ac chicken supplemented yeast fermented broken rice in diets (g/bird)

Item

YFBR, %

SEM

p

0

1.5

3

4.5

6

Slaughter weight

672b

724ab

712ab

762a

693b

11.9

0.004

Carcass weight

433b

457ab

446ab

487a

424b

10.6

0.012

%, Carcass

64.4

63.1

62.6

64.0

61.2

0.98

0.131

Breast meat weight

72.8b

79.0ab

78.6ab

84.2a

72.2b

2.21

0.032

%, Breast meat

16.8

17.3

17.6

17.3

17.0

0.81

0.534

Thigh weight

95.5c

111ab

106ab

113a

98.6c

1.08

0.001

%, Thigh meat
Liver W.
Heart W.
Gizzard W.
Small intestine L.
Large intestine L.
Cecum L.

22.6
17.6
3.33
21.7
126
8.83
12.8

24.2
18.4
3.50
22.1
127
9.20
13.0

23.7
18.0
3.40
21.8
126
9.03
13.1

23.2
18.4
3.77
22.7
127
9.47
13.2

23.3
17.5
3.40
21.5
126
8.93
12.7

0.54
0.51
0.20
0.72
0.39
0.15
0.36

0.075
0.068
0.071
0.069
0.073
0.640
0.870

a. b. c Mean values with different superscripts within the same row are different at p<0 05 W: weight, L: Length

Table 6 showed that the slaughter weight, carcass weight, breast meat and thigh meat were significantly higher values for the YFBR4.5 treatments (p<0.05). There was no difference in carcass, breast and thigh proportion among the treatments (p>0.05).

Also, in agreement with our results, Aristides et al (2018) reported that increase of carcass yield is related to the supplement of S. cerevisiae as a dietary tool that can provide a better absorption and digestibility of some nutrients such as minerals and vitamins leading to increase chicken carcass

Nutrient composition of the Ac chicken meat

The quality of Ac chicken meat in the experiment was stated in Table 7.

Table 7. Nutrient composition (% fresh form) of breast meat of Ac chicken in the treatments

Item

YFBR, %

SEM

p

0

1.5

3

4.5

6

DM

27.0

26.6

26.7

27.0

27.1

0.18

0.32

OM

98.8

98.7

98.7

98.7

98.7

0.04

0.54

CP

20.1

21.1

20.7

21.6

20.8

0.69

0.68

EE

4.29

4.31

4.28

4.18

4.28

0.07

0.71

Ash

1.25

1.32

1.33

1.35

1.32

0.04

0.54

There were no significant differences in the nutrient composition of the breast muscle from the birds among five dietary treatments (p>0.05) (Table 7). The concentrations of DM, OM, CP and Ash of breast muscle in a current trial are in a line of the data of Ac chicken fed Tra fish meal (27.8-28.5% DM, 98.0-98.5% OM, 20.5-21.5% CP and 1.53-1.68% Ash) reported by Nguyen Thi My Linh (2012).

Haematology and biochemistry blood parameters of Ac chicken expressed physiological functions within the bird and their healthin experiment were shown in Table 8.

Table 8. Haematology and biochemistry blood parameters of Ac chicken in experiment

Item

YFBR, %

SEM

p

 0

1.5

3

4.5

6

Erythrocyte (106/ml)

2.45b

2.49ab

2.55ab

2.71a

2.45b

0.05

0.017

Hematocrit, %

31.0

32.4

34.9

35.1

32.7

0.98

0.064

Hemoglobin, g%

8.07

8.45

8.72

8.87

8.32

0.67

0.922

Glucose (mmol/L)

15.4

15.7

16.1

16.8

16.1

0.63

0.646

Triglycerid (mmol/L)

0.34

0.34

0.39

0.46

0.40

0.04

0.167

Cholesterol (mmol/L)

4.43a

3.93ab

3.78ab

3.69b

3.99ab

0.23

0.040

Protein (g/L)

37.1b

39ab

41ab

41.8a

37.8b

1.02

0.037

Albumin (g/L)

15.2

15.7

16.8

16.5

14.8

0.98

0.413

Globulin (g/L)

23.0ab

24.8a

24.7a

25.0a

21.3b

0.67

0.013

A/G(g/l)

0.65ab

0.58b

0.68a

0.66ab

0.69a

0.02

0.042

Results of erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin contents of Ac chicken had trend to be higher for the treatments supplemented YFBR (p>0.05), however, there was only erythrocyte count being significantly higher for the YFBR4.5 diet (p<0.05). Serum glucose and triglyceride concentrations did not show significant difference among the treatments(p>0.05). The serum protein and globulin contents were significantly higher in the YFBR4.5 (p<0.05), while serum cholesterol content reduced for the birds supplemented YFBR, and at 4.5% YFBR addition gave significant lower value(p<0.05). The results obtained in a current trial are consistent with the findings of Kumar et al (2019) that yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation in chicken diets improved the carcass and growth performance, total erythrocyte, hemoglobin, total protein, globulin. Also, Saccharomyces cerevisiae decreased serum cholesterol by affecting their absorption and metabolism in chicken blood (Ahmed et al (2015).

These results are also similar findings of Adriani et al (2021ab) and Kumalasari et al (2020) that probiotic powder (live yeast) in broiler reduce feed conversion ratio, increase body weight gain, increase immunity, blood hematology and other blood biochemistry.

Figure 3. Effect of YFBR supplement levels on cholesterol content
Intestine health status of Ac chicken supplemented yeast fermented broken rice

Table 9. Bacteria density in excreta at 8 week-old Ac chicken

Item

YFBR, %

SEM

p

 0

1.5

3

4.5

6

E. coli (104CFU/g)

31.0a

14.0b

13.0b

4.7c

3.7c

0.767

0.001

C. perfringens (103 CFU/g)

24.0a

14.7b

12.0b

6.0c

5.3c

1.09

0.001

Salmonella. spp/25 g (+/-)

N

N

N

N

N

Table 9. showed that bacteria density in excreta was significantly recorded in treatments. The account of E. Coli, Clostridium perfringens was different among the treatments (p<0.05). In a present study both E. coli and C. perfringens accounts were significantly the highest (p<0.05) in chicken excreta of the treatment without supplementing (YFBR0), lower values for the YFBR1.5 and YFBR3 treatments and the lowest for the YFBR4.5 and YFBR6treatments (p<0.05). Salmonella. spp was undetected for the birds without or with supplementation of YFBR. This could be explained that adding yeast fermented broken rice, Saccharomyses cerevisiae prevented the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the intestines, resulting in reduce mortality for chicken (Fatufe and Matanmi 2011). The results obtained are also explained by Borda-Molina et al 2018) that supplementing Saccharomyces cerevisiaein poultry feed play an important role in inhibiting pathogens and interacting with each other as well as with the gut-associated immune system.


Conclusion

It was concluded, based on all results obtained, the supplementation of yeast fermented broken rice (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)in the diets improved daily weight gain, carcass performance, physiological status and health of Ac chicken. At level of 4.5% yeast fermented broken rice supplemented in the concentrate diet gave the higher growth performance and carcass values, better FCR and decreased density of E. coli and C. perfringens in the Ac chicken excreta leading to enhancing intestinal health.


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