Livestock Research for Rural Development 35 (6) 2023 LRRD Search LRRD Misssion Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Effects of black garlic supplement on growth performance and blood chemistry of Tau Vang chicken

Pham Tan Nha and Le Thu Thuy

Cantho University, Cantho City, Vietnam
ptnha@ctu.edu.co

Abstract

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of black garlic supplement on the growth performance of Tau Vang chicken in 6-13 weeks old period. It was a completely randomized design with 5 treatments corresponding to 5 black garlic supplement levels and 4 replications with 10 birds per experimental unit. The treatments were the different black garlic supplement levels of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 % (weight of water) to mix in water. Corresponding to the BG0, BG1, BG2, BG3 and BG4 treatments. The results showed that the daily intakes of DM, OM, CP, EE and NDF were significantly lower (p<0.05) for the birds given G0 diet than for other diets with the highest values observed in bird group fed BG2, BG3 and BG4 diets. The significantly higher daily weight gain, final live weight and the lower FCR were found for the BG2 and BG3 treatment (p<0.05). The black garlic supplement in the diets of Tau Vang chicken improved the carcass, breast meat and thigh meat weights (P<0.05). The adding black garlic into the drinking water the triglyceride and total cholesterol index in the blood of Tau Vang chicken decreases, which is good for the health of chicken. Consumers using low triglyceride and total cholesterol chicken meat will be good for their health as well.

It was concluded that black garlic supplementation in the drinking water at a level of from 2 to 3 % (fresh state) improved growth performance for growing Tau Vang chicken production. It showed that black garlic made quantification of triglycerid and quantification of total cholesterol in chicken blood decrease.

Key words: black garlic, Tau Vang, triglyceride, cholesterol


Introduction

Tau Vang chicken is originally Vietnamese local breed, which has been popularly raised in the Mekong delta of Vietnam. It can tolerate the harsh conditions and low quality diets, however it gives good meat with more than double price as compared to commercial chicken (Pham Tan Nha 2019). Garlic additives in diets give better health and meat quality of chicken. It is concluded that supplementation of garlic improves the performance of broilers when added at the level of 1% of broiler ration and could be a viable alternative to antibiotic growth promoter in the feeding of broiler chicken (Issa and Omar 2012).

Black garlic overcomes many disadvantages of fresh garlic, and at the same time contains valuable biologically active substances, so it is increasingly widely used daily to promote health and prevent diseases. However, more research is needed to prove the value of black garlic in the prevention and treatment of livestock and poultry, promote more research and use of black garlic as a therapeutic and medicinal adjunct food, as well as optimize production conditions to stabilize quality and reduce the cost of products.

Black garlic has the effect of reducing bad cholesterol, while increasing good cholesterol, helping the body remove plaque on the walls of blood vessels. Black garlic has the effect of reducing blood fat, inhibiting the accumulation of platelets, preventing the formation of blood clots.

Therefore, black garlic has the effect of preventing cardiovascular disease. Black garlic is used as an antidote, expectorant, diuretic, anthelmintic, digestive booster, vitamin deficiency. In addition, this medicinal herb is also used to treat respiratory diseases, skin antiseptics, colds.

The objective of this study to determine optimum level of black garlic supplement in water on growth performance and blood chemistry of growing Tau Vang chicken were raised under the conditions of the Mekong delta of Vietnam for the useful recommendations to the producers.


Materials and methods

Location and climate of the study area

Experiment was conducted from January to May in 2023, at a private farm (a householder) in Vinh Long province. The chemical analysis of feeds was done at the laboratory of the Faculty of Animal sciences, School of Agriculture of Can Tho University.

Experimental animals

One day old-Tau Vang chicken were bought from a Tau Vang breeding farm in Long An province. Chicks from 2 to 28 days were fed special concentrate pellet (20% CP). Chicks from 29 to 35 days were fed concentrate pellet and supplemented a small amount of experimental diets. The chicken at 36 days of age were introduced to the trial, all birds were vaccinated H5N1. Newcastle and some common diseases before using in the trial.

Experimental design and treatments

Two hundred Tau Vang chicken at 6 weeks of age (405 10.5 g/bird) were allotted in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 4 replicates and 10 birds per experimental unit (balanced sex). The treatments were the different black garlic supplement levels of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4% to mix in water (weight of water), corresponding to the BG0 (basal water), BG1, BG2, BG3 and BG4 treatments, respectively). The trial lasted 8 weeks with Tau Vang chicken from 6 to 13 weeks of age. Feed ingredients of diet was presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Feed ingredient composition of concentrate diet in the experiment

Feed

(%)

Feed

(%)

Rice bran

5.1

Premix vitamin

0.40

Maize

34.8

Premix mineral

0.50

Fish meal

10.1

CaCO 3

0.49

Broken rice

36.3

DCP

0.51

Soybean extraction

11.8

Feeds and preparation of black garlic

Black garlic production process: Fresh garlic is left whole and put in a brewing pot with a temperature of 60 degrees Celsius and aged for 12 days. Fresh garlic will be converted into black garlic. All feed ingredients were bought in one occasion from feed store for throughout the experiment. The basal diet was formulated and contained 12.9 MJ ME/kgDM and 18% CP. Back garlic powder was finely mixed with the water following experimental design before drink water. Chemical compositions of back garlic, feed ingredients and basal diet were presented in Table 2 and 3.

Photo 1. Black garlic brewing pot Photo 2. Black garlic


Table 2. Chemical compositions of back garlic and fresh garlic

Item

Back garlic

Fresh garlic

Sugar dissolved in water

1.88-7.91 x increase

450 mg/g

Total polyphenols

4.19 x increase

13.91 mg/g (Calculated by gallic acid)

Total flavonoids

4.77 x increase

3.22 mg/g (Calculated by rutin)

Compound Amadori/Heyns

40-100 x increase

10 mg/g

Fructan

0.15-0.01 x reduction

580 mg/g

Leucin

1.06 x increase

58.62 mg/100 g

Isoleucin

1.67 x increase

50.04 mg/100 g

Cystein

0.58 x reduction

81.06 mg/100 g

Phenylalanin

2.43 x increase

55.64 mg/100 g

Tyrosin

0.18 x reduction

449.95 mg/100 g

Nguyen Ngoc Nhu Y and Pham Tan Nha, 2023



Table 3. Chemical compositions of feed ingredients and basal diet (% DM)

Feed Item

Maize

Broken
rice

Rice
bran

Soybean
Extraction

Fish
meal

Basal
diet

DM

88.6

86.7

86.0

89.5

91.9

89.1

OM

98.6

99.5

89.6

94.8

78.1

91.8

CP

8.08

9.29

12.5

43.4

60.4

18.1

EE

4.85

0.82

18.1

1.22

12.7

4.00

CF

2.12

0.59

6.59

5.44

0.19

3.60

NDF

28.5

7.35

32.1

12.3

11.0

17.0

Ash

1.40

0.51

10.4

6.82

21.9

8.20

ME (MJ/kgDM)

13.9

13.5

13.0

10.3

12.6

12.9

DM: dry matter, OM: orgarnic matter, CP: crude protein, EE: ether extraction, CF: crude fibre, NDF: neutral detergent fibre, ME: metablolizable ernergy (Janssen et al, 1989)


Housing and management

House for birds was made by wood and tole. Experimental birds were confined in pens with 2.5 m2/10 birds, which were surrounded by wood, plastic net and its floor was overlaid with 20 cm of sand and rice straw layer in its surface for bedding. Feeders and drinkers were put in front of each cage. Feeders and drinkers were cleaned daily every morning and chicken litters were removed weekly. The birds were fed 3 times daily at 7.00, 13.00 and 17.00 h and feed offered to the birds was weekly adjusted by an increase from 5 % to 10% according to real feed intake. Birds were freely to access water. Water has been mixed with back garlic according to the ratio of the experiment (0; 1; 2; 3 and 4% back garlic).

Measurements

Daily intakes of feed and nutrients: feed and refusals were collected and weighed daily morning.

Daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio: the birds were weighed weekly and at the end of experiment.

Carcass values: after finishing 4 birds (2 male and 2 female) per each experimental unit were slaughtered for the evaluation of carcass traits. Body measurements of birds were described by Salomon (1996).

Chemical analyses

Feeds offered were analyzed for chemical compositions: DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, Ash. They were analyzed following procedures of AOAC (1990). NDF analysis was followed the Van Soest et al, (1991) and ME was calculated by Janssen (1989).

Statistical analysis

Data were analyzed by using General Linear Model (GLM) of Minitab progam 16.1.0 (Minitab. 2016) and the comparison of significant difference between two treatments was done by Tukey method of Minitab (2016).


Results and discussion

Daily intakes of feed and nutrients of growing Tau Vang chicken

Table 4. Daily intakes of feed and nutrient of Tau Vang chicken (g/bird)

Item

Black garlic

SE

p

BG0

BG1

BG2

BG3

BG4

DM

53.42b

53.98b

55.93ab

57.97a

58.4a

0.43

0.038

OM

49.85c

49.59 c

50.44b

53.00a

53.80a

1.96

0.035

CP

9.78b

9.78b

9.96ab

10.56a

10.63a

0.04

0.024

EE

2.15b

2.24b

2.24b

2.37a

2.38a

0.05

0.015

CF

2.18

2.19

2.26

2.28

2.23

0.02

0.06

NDF

9.25b

9.17b

9.33ab

9.85 a

9.95 a

0.07

0.017

Ash

4.46 b

4.42 b

4.49 a

4.75 a

4.70 a

0.05

0.018

ME (MJ/kg/DM)

0.70b

0.69b

0.73b

0.75a

0.75a

0.01

0.025

a,b,c Mean values with different superscripts within the same row are different at p<0. 05

Daily intakes of DM, OM, CP, EE and NDF were significantly lower (p<0.05) for the birds given G0 diet than for other diets with the highest values observed in bird group fed BG2, BG3 and BG4 diets. The DM and CP intakes in the present trial are higher than those of a previous study on Tau Vang chicken (45.9-49.4 gDM/day; 9.17-9.59 gCP/day, respectively) reported by Nguyen Thanh Nhan (2012). The ME intake was significantly higher for the birds in the BG2, BG3 and BG4 treatments (P<0.05) than for the birds in the BG0 and BG1 treatments, possibly due to higher DM intake.

Figure 1. The effect of Black garlic on DM intake
Effects of dietary different black garlicsupplement on the growth performance of growing Tau Vang chicken

Table 5. Daily weight gain, final live weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of Tau Vang chicken (g/bird)

Item

Black garlic

SE

p

BG0

BG1

BG2

BG3

BG4

Initial live weight

406

405

403

408

409

8.5

0.243

Final live weight

1300c

1340bc

1395b

1419a

1417a

4.12

0.001

Daily weight gain

15.96c

16.7bc

17.7b

18.1a

18.0a

0.24

0.007

FCR

3.35a

3.23b

3.16c

3.21c

3.25b

0.5

0.004

CP/ weight gain (g/kg)

656.3a

657.4a

633.0b

603.2c

608.5c

7.09

0.003

a. b. c Mean values with different superscripts within the same row are different at p<0. 05

Table 5 shows that daily weight gain (DWG) was lower for the birds without supplementing black garlic (BG0 treament) than those fed black garlic and the significantly higher result found in the BG3 and BG4 treaments p<0.05). The explanation was that the birds in this treatment had higher DM, OM, CP, EE and ME intakes. The results of DM intake and daily weight gain in a current study are in agreement with the findings that supplementing 3% garlic powder (in DM) in diet for kids which improved feed consumption and weight gain (Okali Usur, 2020). The DWGs obtained are closed with the results of 17.5g-18.7 g/bird, but being slightly higher than the values of 15.3 -16.8 g/bird in previous trials on Tau Vang chicken (Huynh Thanh Yen, 2017; Nguyen Van Nhan, 2017, respectively).

Figure 2. The effect of Black garlic on DWG

Final live weights were significantly higher for the birds supplemented black garlic than that of those in the BG0 treatment (p<0.05), resulting from higher daily weight gain. The final live weights in this trial were in a range of 1300- 1419g of a previous experiment on Tau Vang chicken (Nguyen Thanh Nhan, 2012). Results of CP consumption/weight gain were significantly lower for the birds in the BG3 and BG4 treatments (p< 0.05).

Figure 3. The effect of Black garlic on FCR

FCR of Tau Vang chicken was better in the BG2 and BG3 treatments (p <0.05), it could be due to higher daily weight gain. The results of FCR are consistent with the values of 3.24-3.53 reported by Pham Tan Nha (2019).

Effects of dietary different black saffron supplement on carcass quality of growing Tau Vang chicken

Table 6. Caracass values and internal organs of Tau Vang chicken supplemented back garlic in water (g.bird)

Item

Black garlic

SE

p

BG0

BG1

BG2

BG3

BG4

Slaughter live weight

1300c

1340b

1400a

1420a

1415a

18.4

0.016

Carcass weight

898c

961bc

1007b

1028a

1023a

31.0

0.033

% Carcass

69.1

71.7

71.9

72.4

72.3

1.97

0.754

Breast meat weight

174.3c

190.2bc

191.3b

221.0a

213.8a

9.40

0.003

% Breast meat

19.4

19.8

19.0

21.5

20.9

0.72

0.051

Thigh meat weight

117.7 c

130.7b

139.9a

146.0a

144.2a

3.16

0.049

%Thigh meat

13.1

13.6

13.9

14.2

14.1

0.43

0.798

Heart weight

9.1

10.2

8.88

10.2

9.82

0.81

0.072

Liver weight

23.5

22.7

23.9

23.1

22.2

4.05

0.678

Cecal length. cm

14.5

14.9

14.1

13.5

13.6

1.09

0.767

a .b. c Mean values with different superscripts within the same row are different at P<0. 05

Slaughter weights of chicken were correspondent to the final live weights. Carcass weight was significantly higher in the BG2, BG3 and BG4 treatments (p<0.05) (Table 6). Percentage of carcass was closed among the treatments (p>0.05), these results are in a range of 69.1% - 72.4, published by Huynh Thanh Yen (2017). Breast meat and thigh meat weights were significantly highest in BG3 and BG4 treatments. Percentages of breast meat and thigh meat were resembled among the treatments (p> 0.05). All internal organs were not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05).

Table 7. Blood biochemical indicators of Tau Vang chicken supplemented black garlic in drinking water (mmol/L)

Item

Black garlic

Normal index
of human

BG0

BG1

BG2

BG3

BG4

Quantification of Triglycerid

1.83

1.37

1.29

1.12

0.77

0.46 - 1.88

Quantification of total cholesterol

4.67

4.49

4.25

3.38

2.96

3.9 - 5.2

HDL-C (High density lipoprotein Cholesterol)

2.57

2.90

2.23

3.41

3.2

> 0.9

LDL-C (Low density lipoprotein Cholesterol)

1.28

0.88

1.80

1.61

0.864

< 3.4

Quantification of Albumin (g/L)

16.34

15.9

15.20

14.1

13.63

34 - 48

Center Lab Vietnam of Cantho city

The Triglyceride index is high, it will affect the blood transport process that will cause many negative effects on health.

Fat accumulation in the walls of blood vessels for a long time will cause narrowing of the coronary arteries, causing heart attacks and strokes. If the Triglyceride index is high, often, the patient is at risk of atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, obesity, hyperlipidemia.

The adding fresh garlic into the water, the Triglyceride index in the blood of local chicken decreases, which is good for the health of chicken. Consumers using low Triglyceride chicken meat will be good for their health as well. Triglyceride index was lowest in treatment BG4 (0.77 mmol/L).

Figure 4. The effect of black garlic on quantification of triglycerid

Quantification of total cholesterol decreare from BGO treatment to BG4 treatment. It was highest at BGO treatment (4.67 mmol/L) and It was lowest at BG4 treatment (2.96 mmol/L). This showed that black garlic made quantification of total cholesterol in chicken blood decrease. HDL-C. LDL-C and Quantification of Albumin decreare from BGO treatment to BG4 treatment, it was lowest at BG4 treatment (13.63 mmol/L. 14.1 mmol/L. 15.2 mmol/L. 15.9 mmol/L and 16.34 g/L; respectively).

Figure 5. The effect of fresh garlic on quantification of total cholesterol

Cholesterol is an essential and indispensable factor for the body. However, if the body is provided with too much cholesterol, unused cholesterol can accumulate in blood vessels. For a long time, it will form plaques, narrow and clog blood vessels, cause many cardiovascular disease and stroke risk.

The total cholesterol test index reflects the risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the higher the total cholesterol test result is, the greater the risk of cardiovascular disease is.

When adding back garlic, the total cholesterol in the blood of local chicken decrease, which is good for the health of chicken as well as for human health when using this chicken meat.

The lowest total cholesterol in the treatment was BG4 (2.96 mmol/L). It could have been explained as follows:

The saponins in garlic were active ingredients that create a link between bile salts and cholesterol in the intestinal tract. From there, bile salts will gradually form small micelles with cholesterol, creating favorable conditions for the absorption of all bad cholesterol. As a result, the amount of bad cholesterol in the intestinal wall is significantly reduced, thereby reducing the total cholesterol in the blood of chickens.


Conclusions

It was concluded that back garlic supplementation in the drinking water at a level of from 2 to 3% (fresh) improved growth performance for growing Tau Vang chicken production. It showed that back garlic made quantification of triglycerid and quantification of total cholesterol in chicken blood decrease.


Acknowledgments

I would like to thank the Faculty of Animal Husbandry, School of Agriculture, Can Tho University for giving me the opportunity to conduct this experiment.


References

Al-Shuwaili M A, Ibrahim E I, Naqi Al-Bayati M T 2015 Effect of dietary herbal plants supplement in turkey diet on performance and some blood biochemical parameters. Glob. J. Biosci. Biotechnol.2015;4(2):153–157

AOAC 1990 Official methods of chemical analysis.Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (15 th ed) Washington DC.

Huynh Thanh Yen 2017 Effect of Probitic on the growth performance. carcass quality and economics of Tau Vang chikens.Thesis of University of Cantho,35-37.

Lammers P J, Kerr B J, Honeyman M S, Stalder K, Dozier III W A, Weber T E, Kidd M T and Bregendahl K 2008 Nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy value of crude glycerol for laying hens. Poultry Science. 87:104 - 107.

Huang R L, Yin Y L, Wu G Y, Zhang Y G, Li T J, Li M X, Tang Z R, Zhang J, Wang B, He J H, and Nie X Z 2005 Effect of dietary oligochitosan supplementation on ileal digestibility of nutrients and performance in broilers. Poultry Science. 84: 1383 - 1388.

Isstga K, Omar J 2012 Effect of garlic powder on performance and lipid profile of broilers.Open J. Anim. Sci. 2012;2:62–68

Janssen W M M A 1989 European Table of Energy Values for Poultry Feedstuffs. 3rd ed.

Minitab 2010 Minitab reference manual release 16. 1.0.Minitab Inc.

Nguyen Thanh Nhan 2012 Studying growth rate. meat performance and meat quality of Tau Vang. Noi and Guinea fowls in Long An Province. MSc Thesis in Agricultural Sciences Animal Science. Cantho University. 2012.

Nguyen Van Nhan 2017 Effect of Shrimp Soluble Extract on the growth performance, carcass quality and economics of Tau Vang chikens. Thesis of University of Cantho. 34-36.

Okali Usur J 2020 Effects of thyme and garlic on growth and biochemical traits in goats. Animal Production Department, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah. Iraq. Jalalalali40@yahoo.com

Okoleh GC Chukwu, A I Adeolu 2014 Effect of ground ginger and garlic on the growth performance, carcass quality and economics of production of broiler chikens.

Pham tan Nha 2019 Effect of shrimp and squid soluble extract on growth rate of crossbred Noi from 5-12 weeks of age.Cantho University Journal of Science. (55): 1-6.

Nguyen ngoc Nhu Y and Pham tan Nha 2023 Effect of black garlic on growth rate of Ac chicken from 6-12 weeks of age . Thesis on livestock husbandry in Can Tho university.

Salomon F V 1996 Allgemeines Bauprinzip und aeussere Anatomie der Voegel. In: Lehrbuch der Gefluegelanatomie (Hrsg. F. -V. Salomon). Gustav Fischer Verla, Jena. Germany, pp. 19-25

Van Soest P, J Robertson J B and Lewis B A 1991. Symposium: Carbohydrate methodology. metabolism and nutritional implications in dairy cattle: methods for dietary fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition.Journal Dairy Science 74, pp. 3585–3597.