Livestock Research for Rural Development 33 (9) 2021 LRRD Search LRRD Misssion Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Performance production of broiler chicken given Shrimp Peptide Extract (SPE) in drinking water

Susanti, Suraya Kaffi Syahpura and Yana Sukaryana

Department of Animal Husbandry of Lampung State Polytechnic, Indonesia
susantisukses@polinela.ac.id

Abstract

The demands of a healthy diet encourage the innovation to create, find product derived from waste to be used to improve livestock and attention on human safety. Shrimp Peptide Extract (SPE) is a product derived from the extraction of shrimp head waste which is useful for livestock as anti-stress, enhancing the immune system, and support growth factors. Shrimp head waste has not been utilized optimally, therefore a study of its use in drinking water will be conducted on the production performance of broiler. The research method used a completely randomized design with 4 treatments of SPE on DOC Ross Strain there are T0 (0%), T1 (1%), T2 (2%), T3 (3%), in drinking water (v/v) given in the morning for 7 days. Each treatment was repeated 5 times, each replication is 10 DOC in Laboratory Polytechnic of Lampung from July – November 2020. Observation was production performance (feed intake, final body weight (g/b), ADG, and FCR). The results showed the treatment of SPE was significantly different (P<0.01) on body weight (g/c), FCR, and was not significantly different (P>0.01) on feed consumption (g/c) and significantly different (P<0.01)to the average daily gain (g/c/day) in broilers that are not given SPE

Keywords: Shrimp Peptide Extract, broiler, performance production


Introduction

Broilers are type of poultry that is widely developed as a source of meeting the needs of animal protein. Broilers are the fastest growing poultry. This is because broilers are the result of cultivation using advanced technology, therefore they have favorable economic properties. Broiler is a term to refer to chicken strains cultivated by technology that have economic characteristics, characterized by rapid growth as a meat producer, low feed conversion, ready to cut at a relatively young age, and produce quality soft fiber meat (Fadila, 2013).According to Rasyaf (1995), broilers have beneficial properties, both for breeders and consumers. The good qualities possessed by broiler chickens are soft meat, smooth and soft skin; the chest cartilage has not yet formed a hard bone; large body size, with a broad, dense and full chest; feed efficiency is quite high and most of the food is converted to meat; Growth or weight gain is very fast at 5 - 6 weeks of age chickens can weigh 2 kg. The fast growth rate in broilers is always followed by fast fat, where fat accumulation tends to increase with increasing body weight. The rapid growth of broilers, which is often followed by high fat, is a problem for consumers who want chicken with low fat.

Technology development is an important point in the advancement of research in the field of animal husbandry. Key research is an effort to encourage " Making Indonesia 4.0", especially in the livestock-agriculture sector. According to Soeparno (2011), there are four critical points in the development towards Indonesia 4.0, including: 1) Food security and efficient use of biomass, 2) Sustainable competitiveness of the livestock sector, 3) Healthy livestock for a healthy diet and society healthy, and 4) cross-sectoral problems. Food security and improved nutrition are among the SDGs targets. One of the efforts in the livestock sector to encourage the success of this program is to create innovations to increase the quality and quantity of meat. One of the livestock that can achieve the above goals is the broiler. Broiler is a type of broiler that has the main potential as a meat producer and is widely consumed by almost all levels of society in Indonesia. The demand for a healthy diet for a healthy community is to ask people to innovate in creating or finding products derived from waste (both agricultural waste, livestock waste, and fishery waste) to conduct an assessment of the value of these waste commodities so that they can be used to improve livestock performance and remain pay attention to human safety.

This study used shrimp head waste that has been extracted called Shrimp Peptide Extract (SPE) and is a product derived from shrimp head waste extraction which has many benefits for livestock, namely as an anti-stress, boost the immune system, and support growth factors. Shrimp Peptide Extract contains quality protein (peptides), high in antioxidants and rich in organic acids. So far, shrimp head waste has not been utilized optimally. In fact, shrimp head waste has good potential to support livestock production performance (feed intake, final body weight (gr / head), feed conversion, and mortality)

This research is important to carry out considering the increasing public awareness of healthy meat consumption, and research data on the use of Shrimp Peptide Extract so far has been mostly used for aqua and shrimp feed products, so research and use of Shrimp Peptide Extract still need to be assessed for poultry research. The use of Shrimp Peptide Extract in rations and applicaple drinking water is applied in people's farms considering that the waste comes from local shrimp which are affordable and easy to get.


Materials and methods

The equipment used is a broiler cage, a triple beam balance, a knife, a tray, a pH meter, a feed box, a drinking bowl. The research was conducted in the broiler cage of Lampung State Polytechnic. The broiler used was the Ross strain, as many as 200 individuals. The research design used a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 SPE doses of treatment, namely T0 (0%), T1 (1%), T2 (2%), T3 (3%) in drinking water (v / v) given in the morning for 7 consecutive days. Each treatment was repeated 5 times and each replication consisted of 10 animals that were placed randomly. The dose treatment of Shrimp Peptide Extract was carried out after a period of adaptation to maintenance for 1 week through a mixture in drinking water in the morning at 08.00 A.M.

The feed was commercial feed from PT.Cheil Jedang GM1-C on ad. libitum basis, as was the provision of drinking water in the morning and evening for 4 weeks. The variables observed were production performance (feed intake, final body weight, feed conversion, mortality). The differences between treatments were tested using the Duncan distance test.

Observed Variables

Performance of production, consist:

a. Feed Intake. Called feed consumption is the total amount of feed consumed

b. Final Body Weight (g / c). Describe the final weight of the chickens at the end of the study (at 28 days)

c. Feed Conversion. Describe the ratio of the amount of feed consumed (gr/c) to the final weight of the chicken (g / c)

d. Mortality (%). Describes the ratio of the number of dead chickens to live chickens x 100


Result and discussion

Growth Performance

The parameters used in observing the growth of docs given SPE included body weight (g/c), ration consumption (g/c/day), ration conversion, and daily weight gain (g/c/day). Consumption is a basic factor for life and determines production. The daily ration consumption from the research results of SPE provision can be seen in Table 1.

Table 1. Average value of body weight, feed consumption, average daily gain, and Feed conversion ratio broiler chicken with the SPE in the drinking

Variables

Level of SPE (%)

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

Body Weight

1003.50 1.88a

1241.75 45.22b

1363.00 14.63c

1429.25 21.24d

Feed Consumption

2198.23 48.63a

2213.76 60.56b

2273.22 10.49a

2209.57 53.37a

Average Day Gain

353.75 21.75a

386.75 14.86ab

423.25 26.5b

486.25 8.54c

FCR

2.19 0.08a

1.78 0.07b

1.76 0.02bc

1.55 0.01c

abc means in the same row are not different at P<0.05

Consumption of Rations

Ration consumption during the study on broilers given SPE is seen in Table 1 and Figure 3. The results showed that broiler feed intake without SPE was not significantly different (P> 0.01) compared to those given SPE. The highest average ration consumption was achieved by broilers who received P2 treatment (giving SPE 2%), namely 2273.22 10.49g and the lowest was shown by treatment P0 (without giving SPE), namely 2198.23 48.63 g. This shows that the provision of SPE in feed can increase ration consumption. Feed intake is the amount of food consumed by livestock which is used to fulfill their basic life and for the production of these animals (Winarno, 2004). The results of the calculation of feed consumption as measured by the feed given during one maintenance divided by the number of population.

Figure 1. Impact SPE on body weight Figure 2. Impact SPE on FCR

Figure 3. Impact SPE on feed intake

The ration consumption obtained in this study is an average of 2223.70 g and is mostly lower than what Hartati (2013) recommends in her study without treatment consuming 3039 g / head of feed. This shows that the addition of SPE to feed consumption can improve the work of the digestive organs which can help the absorption of food in the body. The factors that affect the level of ration consumption in rabbits are environmental temperature, health, physical form of ration, balance of food substances, body weight and speed of growth (NRC. 1977).

Average Daily Gain (ADG)

Average Daily Gain (ADG) is the value obtained from the final weighing weight minus the initial weighing weight of maintenance. Deafania (2015) states that the factor that affects body weight gain is feed consumption. Body weight gain in the maintenance of broilers given SPE in drinking water 412.5 g/b/day (Hartati, 2013) has conducted research without treatment resulting in 293 g /c/day. The growth rate of livestock is influenced by many factors, including the quantity and quality of feed. The real difference, one of the causes is the amount of ration consumed increases with the increasing administration of SPE in drinking water compared to broilers that are not given SPE in drinking water, thus giving the effect of increasing broiler weight gain.

The highest daily weight gain was obtained in treatment P3 (giving SPE 3%), namely 486.25 8.54 g / c/day, significantly different (P<0.01) in treatment P2 (giving SPE 2%, 1%, and without giving SPE in drinking water), namely respectively 423.2 26.5 g/c/day, 386.75 14.86 g/c/day, and the lowest was in the P0 treatment (without SPE), namely 353.75 21.75 g/c/day. The rate of growth of livestock is influenced by the number, quality of ration and by ambient temperature. Growth patterns will depend on the management system used, the level of available feed nutrition, health, and climate (Fadila, 2013). In ideal environmental conditions, the shape of the postnatal growth curve for all livestock species is the same, that is, it follows the sigmoid growth curve pattern. In accordance with the growth pattern of the carcass components, which begins with rapid bone growth, then after reaching puberty, the muscle growth rate decreases and fat deposition increases (Soeparno, 2011). Growth is a process of weight gain and changes in body shape and composition, due to the rapid growth rate, different from each of its components. Shrimp extract have potential as prebiotic and have potential as AGP replacer. Prebiotic combine with phytogenic can improve weight gain and FCR on broiler performance (Sapsuha et al 2021).

Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR)

The amount of feed used affects the FCR calculation. FCR is the ratio between the amount of ration consumed and body weight growth, a small FCR number is the amount of ration used to produce 1 kg of meat is smaller (Roberfroid 2000). The higher the FCR means the more rations used (Fadilah, 2007). FCR is needed to describe the biological effectiveness of nutrient utilization in feed. The smaller the amount of feed needed to produce weight gain in chickens, the more efficient the feeding is. Based on the data on the provision of SPE 3% in drinking water to broilers, it produces FCR 1.55 0.01 with PBB 486.25 8.54 g/c/ day. From the results obtained, it can be seen that the addition of SPE in drinking water in broilers is very efficient for broiler productivity. (Hartati, 2013) has conducted research without treatment resulting in FCR 1.89 g. Feed conversion is a comparison between the amount of feed consumed to produce one kg of live weight (Agustin, et al., 2017). The results of observations on the conversion of rations in broilers that were not given SPE in drinking water were significantly different (P <0.01) compared to those given. SPE. This is because the broilers given SPE can increase high body weight gain with low feed consumption, presumably SPE functions as a feed additive. In the study, it was found that the conversion was lower in the provision of SPE 3%, namely an average of 1.55, presumably because SPE which functions as a feed additive can make good use of food substances so that it can increase body weight by consuming feed as efficiently as possible


Conclusion


Acknowledgement

Thank you to UPPM Lampung State Polytechnic who has provided research funding assistance through the Lampung State Polytechnic DIPA program for the 2020 fiscal year.


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