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Milk production and metabolite profile of Saanen Goat fed with Moringa oleifera, Sauropus androgynous L. Merr and Coleus amboinicus Lour leaves

Jodi Novianti, Bagus Priyo Purwanto1, Dewi Apri Astuti2 and Afton Atabany3

Animal Production Science and Technology Study Program, Bogor Agricultural University, Jakarta 12550, Indonesia
jodi.novianti79@gmail.com
1 Vocational college, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16128, Indonesia
2 Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
3 Departement of Animal Production and Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia

Abstract

Saanen goat are one of animal domestic resources of genetic milking goat that shall be developed and cultivated. This study is purposed to evaluate feed consumption and blood metabolism to optimize milk production and quality by using an alternative concentrate fodder crops such as Moringa oleifera (Mo), Sauropus androgynus or katuk and Coleus amboinicus Lour or torbangun which are prominently effective to increase milk production on lactation phase Sixteen (16) does on the first lactation period shall be grouped in the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and divided into four (4) groups with distribution category based on the average of body weight. Milk production and daily leftover feeds shall be effective for 173 days starting from the 8th day after goatling be delivered and colostrum period. Blood metabolites analysis shall be undertaken three (3) times consecutively on: the 8th, 90th and 180th days. The quality of feed consumption, milk production and blood metabolites shall also be assessed thoroughly. The result showed that fat consumption significantly effect on SW (80.57 17.3 g/d) and then followed by Sa, Ca and Mo (66.39 2.24; 61.26 11.64; 60.16 2.66 g/d). Blood metabolites do not show a significant difference among the treatments (p>0.05); therefore, it can be summarized that the treatments could support blood nutrient as a precursor of milk quality with same and normal concentration and; milk production was not significantly affected and yet treatment with additional alternative feed by using some kinds of leaves is 15.6% higher than the controlled ones whereas treatment Sa (1183.09 226.98 g/h/d) is the highest than Mo, Ca and SW in sequent as: 1,061.95 229.32; 914.90 229.82 and 878.89 213.79 g/d.

As a conclusion, the utilization of sauropus to feed Saanen dairy goat is more successful for milk production purposes to be compared with the coleus, moringa and the controlled group.

Keywords: blood metabolites, feed consumption, milk quality, saanen doe


Introduction

Goat farms provides a potential business opportunity to be developed due to the natural ability of goats to adapt the tropical climate and less business capital involvement. The population of goat cattle in country approximately 18,721,000 with mutton production of 66,859 tonnes with an average consumption rate of 0.001 kg/year and yet the production of goat fresh milk still be unified from cow’s milk (Ditjen PKH, 2018). The Saanen goat is one of the dairy goats which is distributed over Java. The Saanen goat farm is an alternative of diversification of milk-producer livestock besides dairy cows as an effort to fulfil the needs of milk in Indonesia (Santosa and Wiwin 2018). Goat milk provides various benefits and good for human health and been tested to medicate various diseases. Saanen goats farmed in tropical climate area is able to produce milk up to 1,000 – 3,800 ml/head/day (Atabany 2001; Sodiq and Abidin 2008).

Moringa, sauropus and coleus are prominently known as a plant that are usually consumed by breastfeeding mothers to increase milk production with protein levels approximately 17-30% (Iwansyah 2018). Each of plant has its owned unique characteristics and yet has similar effect of increasing milk production. Sauropus and coleus contains of lactogague which are known as chemical substance to stimulate milk production. Coleus contains saponins, flavonoids, polyphenols and can increase breastfeeding hormones, such as prolactin and oxytocin, as well as sauropus containing active substances called Sauropi folium which is good for stimulating breast milk (Lawrence et al 2005, Yustendi 2017). Moringa is known as the "Miracle Tree" since moringa richer of nutrition with medicament efficacy than other plant in general so that it is convinced effective to subdue the malnutrition, hunger and any other diseases (Marwah 2010; Krisnadi 2015). In average production of PE goat's milk with a combination supplement of torbangun and katuk is about 1,225.6 – 1,557.1 ml/head/day and with supplement of torbangun leaves with Zn-vitamin E could increase milk production up to 67.22 – 98.65% and also by feeding fresh moringa leaves about 0.5 – 1.5 kg/head/day could accelerate milk production up to 0.5 l/head/day (Zakaria 2012; Rumetor et al 2008; Soetanto 2000). The matter to utilize moringa, sauropus and coleus fodder crops is the incomprehensive studies on the effect of these crops to the Saanen goat milk production performance, in particular at the first lactation.

This study is proposed to understand the effect of the fodder substitution of moringa, sauropus and coleus consumption, milk production, and blood metabolites (triglycerides, glucose, and total protein) of female Saanen goat at its first lactation for 173 days treatment starting on the 8th day after goatling be delivered.


Materials and methods

The research was undertaken at the Siboan Tua Padepokan Farm which addressed in, Kampung Rawa Jero Sub-Village Karya Sari Village, Leuwiliang District, Bogor Regency – West Java, from October 2019 until April 2020. The research procedure was pre-approved by the Veterinary Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of IPB University (Ethical Approval Number: 173-2020). This research provides an aspect of a series of studies on the utilization of moringa, sauropus and coleus leaves on various types of dairy goats for 16 female Saanen goats aged 1.5 – 2 years during the first lactation period with a bodyweight of 29 – 52.4 kg.

The diet was 40% concentrate and 60% grass (PP= Pennisetum purpureum) in the morning and evening, while drinking water was given ad libitum. The concentrate is mixed with grass. The protein level treatment and actual requirement for the dairy goat. The concentrate will be provided to the four mixtures of: palm oil cake, pollard, onggok (cassava waste), molasses, soya waste, moringa meal, sauropus meal, coleus meal, mixed minerals, mixed vitamins and salt.

Photo 1. Moringa Oleifera Photo 2. Sauropus androgynous Photo 3. Coleus amboinicus
Feed consumption

Fodder consumption (g/d) defines as the quantity of ration to be provided on daily basis that measured by calculating the difference between provided fodder and the waste which to be stated in dry ration materials. In addition, the calculation of nutrient consumption that consist of dry material (DM), Crude Protein (CP), Crude Fat (F), Crude Fibre (CF), Calcium (Ca) and Phosphor (P)

Table 1. Composition of concentrates and grass (PP)

SW

Mo

Sa

Ca

PP

Dry Matter, %

84.44

88.42

88.54

88.53

14.67

As % in DM

Crude Protein

18.79

15.97

16.14

15.92

16.18

Crude Fibre

14.03

13.78

17.03

15.71

26.07

Ether extract

7.28

4.94

5.85

5.06

4.12

NFE

49.18

54.89

51.57

50.28

28.89

Ca

0.73

1.43

0.99

0.91

0.43

P

0.58

0.86

0.81

0.89

0.74



Table 2. Composition of concentrate

Component

SW

Mo

Sa

Ca

Palm oil cake

35

28

35

32

Wheat bran

23

23

23

23

Cassava waste

10

17

10

13

Molasses

5

5

5

5

Minerals

1

1

1

1

Vitamin

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Salt

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Soy sauce waste

25

-

-

-

Moringa meal

-

25

-

-

Sauropus meal

-

-

25

-

Coleus meal

-

-

-

25

Total

100

100

100

100

Blood Metabolite Analysis

Blood metabolite analysis to see the levels of triglycerides, glucose, and protein in the blood as an impact estimate of feeding against the milk production and quality. The analysis was undertaken three (3) times consecutively which are on: after goatling delivery (on the 8th day), the peak lactation period on the 3rd month (on the 90th day) and before pregnancy recovery (on the 180th day). The Glucose analysis using method of Colorimetric Enzymatic KIT with catalogue number 139200, the Triglyceride analysis using method of Colorimetric Enzymatic KIT with catalogue number 116392, and analysis of total protein using the Photometric Colorimetric KIT method with catalogue number 157092. The analysis was undertaken at the Laboratory of Nutrition and Meat Labour Cattle, Department of Nutrition and Feed Technology, IPB University.

Milk Production and Quality

Milk production (ml/head/day) defines as the quantity of milk produced on daily basis by measuring the quantity of milking in the morning starting at 0500 hours and in the afternoon starting at 1700 hours by using a measuring cup on a 1-liter scale. In addition, the productions of Fresh Milk per month and Milk during the lactation period shall also calculated, which then after all information be collected, a lactation graph be made.

Experimental design and Statistical Analysis

The experimental research design consisted of four (4) treatments with four (4) experimental groups where each group consisted of four (4) lactating goats as replications. The treatments consisted of: SW = Control/Soy sauce waste (60% grass and 40% concentrate); Mo = 60% grass e and 40% concentrate (moringa meal); Sa = 60% forage and 40% concentrate (sauropus meal); Ca = 60% forage and 40% concentrate (coleus meal). The research design used was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and the data obtained were analysed with variance (ANOVA), if there are significantly in the results, it will be continued with Tukey’s further tests in the SAS 9.4 program.


Results and discussion

Consumption of feed ingredients

The results showed that daily dry material (DM) consumption based on the research result with goat body weight ranging from 29.3 – 52.4 kg that obtained an average of 3.9% BW which is heavier than the NRC recommendation (2007) of 2.83-3.66% (Table 3).

Table 3. Nutrient Feed Consumption of Saanen Goat

Component

SW

Mo

Sa

Ca

SE

p

Dry Matter intake, g/d

- Concentrate

628.65

554.42

564.88

560.09

20.69

0.68

- Grass

844.59

795.76

809.34

799.09

28.71

0.95

- Total

1,473.24

1,350.46

1374.23

1359.17

48.33

0.86

Protein, g/d

- Concentrate

118.15

88.58

91.17

89.14

4.68

0.10

- Forage

136.67

128.77

130.97

129.31

4.65

0.95

- Total

254.82

217.35

222.14

218.45

8.79

0.49

Crude Fat, g/d

- Concentrate

45.79a

27.42b

33.05b

28.34b

2.27

0.01*

- Forage

34.79

32.78

33.34

32.91

1.18

0.95

- Total

80.57

60.16

66.39

61.26

3.16

0.12

Crude Fiber, g/d

- Concentrate

88.22

76.41

96.21

88.00

3.35

0.33

- Forage

220.20

207.47

211.01

208.34

7.49

0.95

- Total

308.43

283.88

307.22

296.34

10.36

0.88

Ca, g/d

- Concentrate

4.59b

7.93a

5.59b

5.10b

0.37

0.001*

- Forage

3.63

3.42

3.48

3.44

0.12

0.95

- Total

8.22b

11.35a

9.07b

8.53b

0.42

0.04*

P, g/d

- Concentrate

3.65b

4.77a

4.58ab

4.98a

0.19

0.09

- Forage

6.25

5.89

5.99

5.91

0.21

0.95

- Total

9.90

10.66

10.56

10.90

0.35

0.85

Diet, %

Concentrate

42.72

41.09

41.11

41.29

-

-

Grass

57.28

58.91

58.89

58.71

-

-

% of LW

3.91

3.8

3.98

3.86

-

-

Mean values in the same column without common superscripts (a,ab,b) differ at p<0.05. SW= Control/soy sauce dregs, Mo= Moringa flour, Sa= Sauropus flour, Ca= Coleus flour

It can be summarised that the consumption of DM fodder with the three (3) types of crops will fulfil the living requirements and production of goatling during the lactation period. Fodder consumption by giving the three types of fodders were indifferent in their treatments. Consumption of control feed with soy sauce dregs was 7.6% higher than the other three types (1,473.14 316.62 g/d) which was followed respectively by the substitutes feed of sauropus (Sa), coleus (Ca) and moringa (Mo) (1,374.23 46.43; 1,359.17 260.28; 1,349.73 60.75 g/d) to compare with the other two types of substitution feed. Based on the research, the substitution of soy sauce dregs feed with three crops types of moringa, sauropus and coleus do not affect feed consumption. Feed consumption is strongly influenced by palatability, ration quality and physical freshness, cattle age, cattle digestive function and health (Silalahi 2011).

Consumption of protein was insignificantly different (p>0.05) among treatments with protein average is 16.41%. Soy sauce dregs have good nutrient content in particular protein content that could reach 20–27% (Sukarini 2003). However; this research utilizes ransom of soy sauce dregs with PK levels 18% which is higher than moringa, sauropus, and coleus. This matter shows that the quantity of protein consumed is influenced by the protein contained in the ration; therefore, it can be concluded that to increase the quantity of goat’s PK consumption can be made by increasing the protein quantity contained in the ration (Laksana et al 2013).

Consumption of crude fat in concentrate was significantly different (P <0.05). Consumption of Fat Concentrate in treatment SW (45.79 9.91 g/d) is higher than the three other types of treatment feed, as well as the total consumption of LK SW (80.57 17.3 g/d) higher than Sa, Ca and Mo (66.39 2.24; 61.26 11.64; 60.16 2.66 g/d) but lower than the results of the study by Nurhajah et al (2016) amounting to 140 g/d. This is related to the crude fat content in the constituent feed, namely SW of 7.28% higher than Sa, Ca and Mo (5.85; 5.06; and 4.94%). Wina et al (2013) stated that the fat content in the feed that is too high (above 5% of the total ratio) will negatively affect the digestibility of CF in the rumen so that it can also affect the ability of cattle to utilize the nutrients consumed from the feed. The consumption of crude fibre in total feed was not significantly different (P> 0.05) with an average range of 283-308 g/head/day but lower than the study by Nurhajah et al (2016) amounting to 920 g/head/day. Consumption of SK and LK may be influenced by the consumption of DM (BK) and the content of fibre and fat in feed (Nurhajah et al 2016).

Calcium (Ca) consumption in the treatment was significantly different in concentrate and total consumption (p<0.05). Consumption of Ca concentrate in treatment Mo (7.93 0.29 g/d) was higher than the three other types of treatment feed, as well as the total feed consumption of Mo (11.35 0.45 g/d) higher than Sa, Ca and SW (9.07 0.32; 8.53 1.59; 8.22 1.77 g/d). The requirement for Ca by taking reference from the NRC recommendations (2007) is about 3.5–4.4 g/d, and Makkar and Salem (2009) research found Calcium in Moringa feed was 3.8 g/kg DM which is lower than the consumption of the research ratio. The average consumption of calcium in moringa treatment was about 1.43% which is higher than that of the study by Sukria et al (2018) at about 1.19%. Consumption of Phosphorus (P) in feed was insignificantly different (p<0.05) between treatments with average is 10.50 g/d (0.76%), where the total consumption of P is higher than the NRC recommendation (2007) at about 1.9-2.8 g/d. The P level in coleus rations was about 0.89% higher than the results of Rumetor's (2008) study as of 0.38%. Calcium and phosphorus are macro minerals that are nutritional elements that are highly required for physiological processes and metabolism of growth/milk production and maintain the cattle’s health throughout various options such as: to be a co-factor in the process of metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats as well as immunity through immune responses in development and maintaining immune cell activity (Suprayitno et al 2020).

Blood Metabolite Analysis

The measurement of blood metabolite was taken during three times, first when started the experiment (8th day), peak lactation (9th day) and the end of days experiment (180th day). This date taken to show the critical days in lactation period. The results of the analysis of blood glucose levels in the study goats ranged from 46.21 to 52.39 mg dl-1 which is lower than the blood glucose levels in the study of Marhaeniyanto et al (2019) at about 60.25 to 64.25 mg dl-1, but still within the normal level of 44 – 81.2 mg dl-1 (Gole et al 2020). This matter is caused by the differences in the type of fodder consumed and digested by the body. In accordance with Tahuk et al (2007) stated that the value of blood glucose is closely related to the consumption of NFE and crude fiber, if the consumption of NFE and crude fiber is low, the blood glucose level is also low, on the other hand, if the consumption is high, the blood glucose level is also high. Glucose is a precursor for the formation of milk lactose. Triglycerides are one of the body's energy reserves. The body will break down triglycerides into energy if the energy in the feed does not meet the body's energy needs (Cunningham 2002). The concentration of blood triglycerides of the samples / goats showed; in all treatments, are higher than the results of the study by Suharti et al (2017) at about 13 – 20% and yet still within the normal level of 31 – 61.5 mg dl-1 (Faisal et al 2017). This matter is presumably caused by the fodder consumed contains good nutrition which than resulted a higher triglyceride level and the ingest absorption is sufficient to fulfil energy requirements so that the triglycerides from the body shall not transform or blood triglycerides have been deposited in the liver and adipose tissue (Astuti et al 2006).

The research result average of 5.87 0.36 g dl-1. This study result was slightly difference against the study result by Marhaeniyanto et al (2019), the total blood protein found in PE goats at about 5.15 to 6.86 g dl-1. The provision of concentrated fodders containing soy sauce dregs, moringa flour, sauropus flour and coleus flour do not affect the total plasma protein levels. This matter may also be factored by an isolated protein ration made, similarity of ages and cattle types and therefore may affect the quantity of feed consumed, especially DM feed which contains of nutrients including crude protein. The level of total plasma protein concentration depends on the protein content in the original feed and the physiological conditions of animal such as: age, growth, hormonal, sex, pregnancy, lactation, stress, and body hydration condition (Gole et al 2020).

Milk Production

From the table below, that showed the milk quality among treatments was insignificantly different (p>0.05) with the average milk production in treatments SW, Sa, Mo and Ca ranging from 854 – 1,152 ml/head/day. In accordance to the research which shows the milk production with crops flour is higher at about 1,024.62 131.68 ml/head/day or 19.92% than the controlled, however referencing to the El Akbar’s research result (2018), the production of Saanen goat milk is about 1,945 ml/head/day which is higher than this study result. The following factors that may influence milk production such as: the animal’s health, management plan, type of fodder, milking management, and age of animal (Rangkuti 2004; Makin 2011).

Table 4. Milk production of Saanen Goat

Component

SW

Mo

Sa

Ca

SEM

p

Milk production, ml/h/d

854.42

1032.07

1152.42

889.38

57.76

0.33

Density, g ml-1

1.029

1.029

1.027

1.029

0.001

0.75

Milk yield, g/d

878.89

1061.95

1183.09

914.90

59.28

0.33

Total Solid, g

106.94

123.14

143.18

107.30

7.10

0.32

SNF, g

66.67

77.46

87.74

63.28

4.43

0.27

Total Solid, %

12,17

11,60

12,10

11,73

0.26

0.86

SNF, %

7,59

7,29

7,42

6,92

0.20

0.78

Mean values in the same column without common superscripts (a,ab,b) differ at p<0.05. R0= Control/soy sauce dregs, R1= Moringa flour, R2= Sauropus flour, R3= Coleus flour

On descriptive result (showed in fig. 1), the highest production is Sa ( Sauropus flour) is 1,152 ml/h/d even was not significantly different (p>0.05) and the lowest production is soy sauce dregs (854.42 ml/h/d). From the aforementioned studies, such as 10% Sauropus leaf extract can produce 827.08 ml/h/d of milk, 15% of Moringa was giving milk yields 916,74 ml/h/d, 9% Coleus supplementation was giving milk yields 786.41 ml/h/d and using of 19% soy sauce dregs can produce 435.83 ml/h/d of milk (Rumetor 2008; Marwah et al 2010; Sofriani 2012; Yustendi and Mardhiah 2018), that was lower than 25% flour substitution plants, and based on this research, using 25% flour substitution can produce higher milk production.

Figure 1. Milk production of Saanen goat

Milk density in research was 1.027-1.029 g/ml, in accordance with SNI (2011), density of milk is 1.027 g/ml but milk density on Moringa (1.027 g/ml) lower than TAS (2008), milk density in raw milk goat was 1.028 g/ml. This can be influenced by milk fat which has a negative impact on the milk density (Ratya 2017). Density is affected by total solid; water and fat than increased milk density can be caused due to the release of gases such as CO2 and N2 contained in milk from the milking process (Rosartio et al 2015).

Total solid in milk based on TAS (2008), Mo and Ca in standard level, SW and Sa in Good level, but SNF (6.5 – 8.1%) lower than TAS (2008) with minimum in 8.25%. Milk fat is related with Total solid where is higher the fat value, the TS will be higher too. Fat is affected by crude fiber in feed because crude fiber as a precursor of acetate acid then passes through a fermentative process in the rumen by microbes and fermentative process results is VFA (volatile fatty acid), including acetate acid in to the body and be converted into fatty acids and will be converted to milk fat (Astuti et al 2020). SNF is also affected by lactose and protein, if the levels lactose and milk protein are high, the SNF will also increase. Milk protein formed from concentrate feed consumed so addition of source feed protein can increase SNF (Utari et al 2012). In addition, the high SNF is also be affected by milk density (Christi and Rohayati 2017).


Conclusion


Acknowledgment

Financial support from the Agency for Agricultural Extension and Human Resources Development Ministry of Agriculture through the scholarship program from 2019 until 2020.


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