Livestock Research for Rural Development 33 (4) 2021 LRRD Search LRRD Misssion Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Growth performance and carcass of crossbred native chickens fed different level of dried elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus companulatus)

Theresia Nur Indah Koni, Aprys Adoe, Bonaventura Oematan and Redempta Wea

Department of Animal Science, Kupang State Agricultural Polytechnic, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia
Indahkoni@gmail.com

Abstract

In a 7-week experiment with crossbred native chickens, the effect of diet inclusion dried elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus companulatus) tuber meal (AC) on feed intake, weight gain, slaughter weight, and carcass weight were evaluated. A total of 140, 8-days-old, unsex Joper crossbred native chickens. The birds were randomly allotted to one of 4 dietary treatments (containing 0, 5, 7.5, and 10 percent AC) in a completely randomized design. Birds were reared on litter floor and had free access to feed and water during the experiment. At 56 days of age, two birds from each pen were selected and after weighing and slaughtered were dissected manually.

Growth performance and carcass increased with a curvilinear trend as the AC tuber meal up to 7.5% was increased. It was concluded that the optimum response growth and carcass weight of crossbred native chickens appeared to be when the AC tuber meal was used 7.5% of the ration.

Keywords: birds, carcass weight, elephant foot yam, feed intake, slaughter weight, weight gain


Introduction

The cost of feed in poultry farming can reach 70% of the total production cost (Thirumalaisamy et al 2016). Maize is the main energy source in the poultry industry. The commercial chicken industry in Indonesia is highly dependent on imports of maize (Zakaria 2011). The use of corn for human consumption in most developing countries has focused attention on the need to explore other sources of energy in diets for monogastric animals.

One such resource that deserves investigation in this study is Amorphophallus campanulatus (AC) or Elephant foot yam tuber. AC is an aracea plant that wild grown (Widodo et al 2014). In eastern Indonesia, elephant foot yam tubers have not been widely used as an animal (Yuzammi 2009). The nutrient composition of AC tuber meals contains calcium 50mg/100 g (0.05%) and 34 mg / 100 g (0.034%) phosphorus (Ravi et al 2009), 7.56% protein, 0.29% crude fiber (Gumilar et al 2011). The metabolizable energy of AC was reported by (Koni et al 2015) to be 3570.60 Kcal/kg. AC flour had 68.21% starch (29.98 amylose) and 13.71% dietary fiber (Widiastuti et al 2020) and 61.75% in vitro digestibility (Faridah 2005). Fermented AC tubers using tempeh yeast can be used up to 5% in broiler ration (Koni and Foenay 2015). There is no data on the effect of AC tubers on the carcass of crossbreed native chickens.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of AC tuber meal on feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ration, slaughter weight, carcass weight, and carcass percentage of crossbred native chickens.


Materials and methods

Fresh Elephant foot yam (AC) tubers were obtained from Manamas Village, Naibenu District, North Central Timor Regency, East Nusa Tenggara. The tubers were washed free of dirt, manually sliced into chips of 3-5 cm thickness, and sun-dried. The moisture content of about 70% was reduced to less than 15% after 2-3 days of drying. The dried chips were ground in a disk mill with a filter size of 1.5 mm. The AC tubers were then mixed with other feed ingredients according to the formulation (Table 1). The feed is made in crumble form.

Animal and ration

One hundred and forty (140) birds of eight-day-old Joper.  Joper is the descendant of a cross between a native male chicken with a brown laying hen) Rusli et al (2019) of crossbred native chickens with an average initial body weight of 96.261.58 g was used in the current study. The dietary treatments were AC 0% = control diet without AC, AC 5% = diet with 5% AC, AC 7.5%= diet with 7.5% AC, AC 10%= diet with 10% AC Composition and nutritive value of treatment diet are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Composition and nutrient content of the experimental diet

Feed ingredient

Treatment AC (%)

0

5

7.5

10

Corn

50.45

45.00

42.50

40.00

AC

-

5.00

7.50

10.00

Rice bran

5.00

5.50

4.70

5.00

Nabati oil

5.00

5.00

5.00

5.00

Fish meal

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

Soybean meal

25.70

25.65

26.45

26.15

DL-Methionine

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

L-Lysine HCl

0.60

0.60

0.60

0.6

Dicalcium phosphate

2.40

2.40

2.40

2.40

NaCl

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

Premix

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

Total

100

100

100

100

Nutrient content

Metabolizable energy (Kcal/kg)1

3015.43

3001.39

3010.09

3013.31

Crude protein (%)2

21.83

21.58

21.90

21.72

Crude fat (%)2

4.71

4.66

4.53

4.46

Crude fiber (%)2

7.63

7.10

6.43

5.90

Ca (%)3

1.11

1.15

1.21

1.11

P (%)3

0.71

0.88

0.84

0.73

AC: Amorphophallus companulatus - 1 calculated value - 2 Analyzed at the Laboratory Nutrition and Animal Feed, Kupang State Agricultural Polytechnic - 3 Laboratory Biochemistry Faculty of Animal Science, UGM

The crossbred native chickens were offered dietary treatments from 8 days old to 56 days old (slaughtered age). Bodyweight and feed intake were weighed weekly. Feed conversation was calculated by dividing the feed intake and weight gain. At the end of the experiment after weighing 2 birds selected randomly from each pen were slaughtered, scalded, de-feathered, and eviscerated to evaluate the carcass weight. Carcass percentage was calculated by dividing the carcass weight by the slaughter weight of the bird.

Statistical analysis

Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. When the treatment indicated significant effect, it was continued to Duncan multiple range test at 5% probability level


Result

There were no differences among treatments for feed intake. Weight gain and feed conversion showed curvilinear trends according to the level of AC tuber meal added to the diet with optimum responses when the AC tuber meal was included at the 7.5% level (Figures 1-2).

Table 2. Growth performance of crossbreed native chicken fed dried AC tuber meal

Parameters

AC (%)

SEM

p

0

5

7.5

10

Feed intake (g/day)

44.92

42.85

44.03

43.72

1.19

0.952

Weight gain (g/day)

11.37b

13.94a

14.85a

14.51a

0,44

0.009

Feed Conversion Ratio#

4.02a

3.10b

2.98b

3.04b

0.15

0.029

# Feed intake/weight gain - AC: Amorphophallus companulatus - a,b means in the same row without a common letter are different at P<0.05 - SEM: Standard error of the mean - p: probability


Figure 1. Effect of level AC on weight gain of crossbred native chickens Figure 2. Effect of level AC on feed conversion ratio of crossbred native chickens

The results of the feeding trial on the carcass of crossbred native chickens are summarised in Table 3 and Figures 3-4. The optimum response appeared to be when the AC tuber meal was about 7.5% in the diet.

Table 3. Carcass of crossbreed native chickens fed dried AC tuber meal

Parameters

AC (%)

SEM

0

5

7.5

10

Slaughter weight (kg)

0.63b

0.79a

0.86a

0.81a

0.02

0.001

Carcass weight (kg)

0.34c

0.43b

0.49ab

0.45a

0.02

0.000

Carcass percentage #

51.70

54.42

56.39

55.70

0.80

0.172

# (carcass weight/slaughter weight)x100% - AC: Amorphophallus companulatus - a,b,c,ab means in the same row without a common letter are different at P<0.05 - SEM: Standard error of the mean - p: probability



Figure 3. Effect of level AC on slaughter weight of crossbred native chickens Figure 4. Effect of level AC on carcass weight of crossbred native chickens


Discussion

The same feed intake in all treatments may be due to the metabolic energy content of each diet almost the same (Table 1). Forbes (2007) states that voluntary intake in poultry has a negative relationship with the concentration of metabolizable energy in the diet. The increase in body weight gain is greatly influenced by AC in the feed. AC has glucomannan as a prebiotic source, that could be used by beneficial endogenous bacteria in the digestive tract. When digestive tract in healthy condition will be affected to higher absorption nutrient. This gastrointestinal condition provided an impact on the increase in nutrients. Glucomannan prebiotic potential comes from its ability to stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria, so that beneficial bacteria population increases, as a result of acid production short-chain fatty acids are increased and have a reducing effect on the number of pathogenic bacteria (Mangisah et al 2020).

The carcass weight of crossbred chickens consuming AC feed was higher than control. This is probably due to the AC content which is good for growth. Carcass weight is closely related to slaughter weight. The slaughter weight of control was lower than that of birds that were given AC. This is because the AC tubers contain glucomannan which functions as a prebiotic. Prebiotics are nutrients for microorganisms in the digestive tract of chickens. Khanifah et al (2018) stated that the use of 1.5% glucomannan extract from Amorphophallus can improve protein digestibility, growth in broiler chickens. Dietary inclusion of glucomannan extracted from Amorphophallus onchophyllus tuber at 0.1% improves body resistance of broiler chickens (Perdinan et al 2019)


Conclusion


References

Faridah D N 2005 Properties of suweg (Amorphophallus companulatus B1)and its glisemic index. Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan 16(3): 254–259 Retrieved November 13, 2014 from https://journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jtip/article/view/511/4134

Forbes J M 2007 Voluntary food intake and diets selection in farm animals. CABI.

Gumilar J, Rachmawan O and Nurdyanti W 2011 Physicochemical quality of chicken nugget using suweg ( Amorphophallus campanulatus B1) Flour as Filler) Jurnal Ilmu Ternak 11(1):1–5 Retrieved November 13, 2014 from http://jurnal.unpad.ac.id/jurnalilmuternak/article/view/393/491

Khanifah, Suthama N and Wahyuni H I 2018 The effect of adding glucomannan derived from porang tuber extract (Amorphopallus onchophyllus) on dietary protein utilization in broiler chicken Jurnal Ilmu Ternak Dan Veteriner 23(2):77-81 Retrieved March 01, 2021 from http://medpub.litbang.pertanian.go.id/index.php/jitv/article/view/1834/pdf%3

Koni T N I, Paga A, Wea R and Foenay T Y A 2015 Nutritive value and metabolizable energy of Amorphophallus companulatus fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus as poultry feed Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 14(6):322–324 Retrieved March 1 2015 from http://docsdrive.com/pdfs/ansinet/pjn/2015/322-324.pdf

Koni T N I and Foenay T A Y 2015 The growth of broiler chickens fed Amorphophallus sp fermented by rhizopus oligosporus Proceedings of the National Seminar on Biotechnology III Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta, 289–301.

Mangisah I, Suthama N, and Pratama R P 2020 Intestinal growth and performance of tegal ducks due to administration of sinbiotics (mixture of Lactobacillus casei and glucomannan) . Prosiding Seminar Nasional Lahan Suboptimal Ke-8 Tahun 2020, “Komoditas Sumber Pangan Untuk Meningkatkan Kualitas Kesehatan Di Era PandemiCovid -19” Palembang 20 Oktober 2020: 978–979.

Perdinan A, Wahyuni H I and Suthama N 2019 Body resistance and growth performance of broiler fed glucomannan extracted from Amorphophallus onchophyllus tuber Tropical Animal Science Journal 42(1):33–38 Retrieved March 1, 2021, from https://journal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/tasj/article/view/22817/16606

Ravi V, Ravindran C S and Suja G 2009 Growth and productivity of elephant foot yam ( Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst . Nicolson ): an Overview Journal of Root Crops, 35(2):131–142.

Thirumalaisamy G, Muralidharan J, Senthilkumar S and Sayee R H 2016 Cost-effective feeding of poultry International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology 5(6):3997–4005 Retrieved March 5, 2021,from https://www.ijset.net/journal/1410.pdf

Widiastuti E S, Rosyidi D, Radiati L E and Purwadi P 2020 The effect of elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus campanulatus) flour and soybean oil addition on the physicochemical and sensory properties of beef sausage Jurnal Ilmu Dan Teknologi Hasil Ternak 15(2):119–130 Retrieved March 1, 2021, from https://jitek.ub.ac.id/index.php/jitek/article/view/412/320

WidodoY, Rahayuningsih S A,Saleh N and Wahyuningsih S 2014 Incorporating root crops under agro-forestry as the newly potential source of food, feed and renewable energy International Journal of Renewable Energy Development 3(3):193–206 Retrieved March 1, 2021,from https://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/ijred/article/view/7986

Yuzammi 2009 The genus Amorphophallus blume ex decaisne ( Araceae Thomsonieae) in Java Reinwardtia 13(1):1–12 Retrieved June 15, 2015, from https://e-journal.biologi.lipi.go.id/index.php/reinwardtia/article/view/8

Zakaria AK 2011 Anticipatory policy and farmers consolidating strategy toward national corn self-sufficiency Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian 9(3): 261–274 Retrieved June, 15, 2015,from https://media.neliti.com/media/publications/57444-ID-kebijakan-antisipatif-dan-strategi-pengg.pdf