Livestock Research for Rural Development 31 (2) 2019 Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Identification, chemical composition and evaluation of browses eaten by goats in Welayta zone, Southern Ethiopia

Shewangizaw Wolde, Addisu Jimma, Endrias Dako, Mohhamed Yasin1, Tesfaye Alemu2 and Deribe Gemiyu

Southern Agricultural Research Institute, Areka Agricultural Research Center, P O.Box 76, Welayta, Ethiopia
shewangizaw2009@yahoo.com
1 Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Werer Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia
2 Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia

Abstract

A study was conducted in Humbo woreda (low altitude) and Damot Gale woreda (mid altitude) of Welayta zone, southern Ethiopia to identify the goat eaten browses and to evaluate their nutrient content. A total of 40 farmers from Humbo woreda were selected randomly whereas 36 farmers from Damot Gale woreda were selected purposefully and data were collected by semi-structured questioner. Data such as livestock holdings and local names of goat feeding browses were collected. Goat holdings in Humbo woreda (8.28 0.63) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than Damot Gale woreda (4.420.65). A total of 40 browses were identified for botanical and family names and their chemical composition indicated that majority of them were protein sources (>20% CP in DM).Therefore it could be concluded that the analyzed goat eaten browses have promising nutrients and could be a basic information for further intervention measures.

Key words: Damot-Gale, goat eaten browses, Humbo, low altitude, mid altitude


Introduction

Goats contribute significantly to the economy and food supply of the poorest sectors of the society. Their specific biological features such as feeding behavior, reproductive efficiency and small body size are important characteristics for integrating goats into different production systems. Goat production is characterized by low productivity levels in terms of growth rate, meat production and reproductive performance in general in Ethiopia and particularly in Southern Ethiopia (Adugna et al 2000). About 29,112,963 goat population in Ethiopia from which 146,292 in Welayta zone (CSA 2015). Browsing type of feeds are the main source of goat feed and have immense potential as protein and energy supplements to improve productivity of goats. However, the gradual decrease in the number of browse trees and shrubs together with its inadequate management practice is a problem as to optimize utilization of existing browse feed types (Said and Tolera 1991; Oteino et al 1992). Moreover research and development efforts have been not given due attention in the study areas. For better market-orientation of the production system of goat, efforts should be made to improve the availability of browse feed types by planting and maintaining the existing browse species. This could be done by selective bush clearing and by making browses available to the goats either by trimming or lopping leaves and branches and beating down fruits or pods. Therefore the objectives of this study were to identify the most common goat eaten browses and evaluate their nutrient content for further investigation.


Materials and methods

Study areas

The study was conducted in Humbo and Damot Gale woredas of Welaiyta zone, southern Ethiopia. Humbo woreda was selected to represent the lowland (<1500 m.a.s.l) and Damot Gale woreda was selected to represent mid altitude (1500-2300 m.a.s.l) agro-ecolgy.

Farmers’ selection

About 40 farmers from Humbo woreda and 36 farmers from Damot Gale woreda were selected for the study. Farmers in lowland areas were selected randomly because of all of them rear goat while in the midland agro ecology the selection was purposively due to small number of farmers own goat. Therefore a total of 76 farmers who have experience in goat production were included in the study.

Data collection

Information was gathered by using a semi-structured questioner. Data such as livestock holdings and common goat browse feed types were recorded. The browse species mostly selected by goats were further grouped by respondents for chemical composition study.

Identification of browses and laboratory analysis

Common goat browsing feed types were identified and sampled at national Herbarium at Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. Chemical composition and In-Vitro Organic Matter Digestibility of browse feed type samples were analyzed at Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Holeta Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. The air dried samples were used for laboratory analysis to determine chemical composition and in-vitro organic matter digestibility of browse species. The samples were then ground to pass a 1-mm sieve and the ground samples were used for laboratory analysis. The samples were analyzed in % DM basis for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) and in-vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD). Nitrogen (N) content was determined following the micro-Kjeldahl digestion, distillation and titration procedures (AOAC, 1995) and the CP content was estimated by multiplying the N content by 6.25. The structural plant constituents (NDF and ADF) were determined according to Van Soest and Robertson procedure (1985). The IVOMD was determined according to the Tilley and Terry procedure (1963).

Data analysis

Independent sample T-test was employed for analyzing the collected data on livestock holdings by using SPSS (version 20) software. Descriptive statistics such as mean and percentages were used to summarize data as required. Probability (P) value less than 0.05 was used to determine the level of significance.


Results and discussions

The mean number of various livestock species per household in the two agro ecologies is summarized in Table1. The major livestock species in the study area were chicken, goat, cattle, sheep and donkey. Goat holdings in lowland area were significantly higher (p<0.05) than midland area in Welayta zone. An overall minimum number of 2,1 and maximum of 28,10 goats were reported per household giving an overall mean of 8.28, 4.42 in Humbo and Damot-Gale woredas, respectively.

Table 1. Livestock holdings in the study households

Type of
Livestock

Humbo

Damot Gale

Overall

mean

mean

mean

Cattle

5.56b

3.86a

4.71

Sheep

0.561a

1.69b

0.132

Goat

8.28b

4.42a

6.35

Chicken

6.51b

3.03a

4.77

Mule

0.00211a

0.00a

0.001

Donkey

0.641b

0.281a

0.461

Means with different superscript latter across rows are significantly different at p<0.05.

The mean holding of goat per household in Alaba special woreda was 4.5 (Deribe 2009) and which finds similarity with the present study in Damot-Gale. However goat holdings in Humbo woreda was higher than Alaba special woreda was might be partly due to the availability of browses in Humbo woreda give the opportunity to keep more goats (Deribe 2009).

A total of 34 goat feeding browses were identified for local, botanical and family names in Damot Gale woreda (Table 2) and Humbo woreda (Table 3). The chemical composition and in-vitro organic matter digestibility for 19 abundant leaves were done and the results indicated that they were not varied significantly (Table 4). Overall, the crud protein (CP) content of all browse leaves was high (mean 22.45 %) and ranged from 20.5% (Grewiabicolor Juss) to 23.7% (Maytenus senegalensis( Lam.)Exell). The differences in CP content among browse leaves in the present findings were in the range of 12-30% as reported by Kaitho (1997) and is usually high compared with mature grasses(3-10%). The in-vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) value of all browse leaves was high (mean 53.11%) and ranged from 42.4% ( Maerua angolensis DC) to 57.8% (Teclea nobilis Del.). Differences in IVOMD among leaves (42.4–57.8%) were in the range of 20–61% as reported by Alibes and Tisserand (1990). The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of all browse leaves was low (mean 34.16%) and ranged from 19.5% (Acacia brevispica Harms) to 50.1% (Maytenus senegalensis( Lam.)Exell).Moreover, the acid detergent fiber (ADF) content of all browse leaves was low (mean 21.88%) and ranged from 12.5% (Ehretia cymosa Thonn.) to 34.4% (Maytenus senegalensis( Lam.)Exell). The NDF and ADF of browse leaves in the present study were falls in the range of 31.5 - 66.5% and 16.3 - 45.3%, respectively as reported by Sibanda and Ndlovu (1992). The study indicated that Maytenus senegalensis( Lam.)Exell was higher in CP, NDF and ADF contens.

Table 2. Goat browses feed types collected from Damot Gale woreda

No

Local name (Welayta)

Botanical name

Family name

1

Goganta

Acacia seyal Del.

Fabaceae

2

Zagiya

Albizia schimperiana Oliv.

Fabaceae

3

Deshalomia

Capparis fascicularis DC.

Capparidaceae

4

Mokota

Corcia africana Lam.

Boraginaceae

5

Sankara

Dodonea angustifolius L.F.

Sapindaceae

6

Etriwanjiya

Ehretia cymosa Thonn.

Boraginaceae

7

Zafiya

Eucalyptus sp.

Myrtaceae

8

Megara

Euclea divinorum Hiem

Ebenaceae

9

Wolla

Ficus platyphylla Del.

Moraceae

10

Gerishuwa

Maytenus senegalensis( Lam.)Exell

Celasteraceae

11

Wogara

Olea europaea L.subsp.cuspidata

Oleaceae

12

Ongafiria

Rhus natalensis Krauss

Anacardiaceae

13

Kobuwa

Ricinus communis L.

Euphorbiaceae

14

Bulluwa

Solanum incanum L.

Solanaceae



Table 3. Goat feeding browses collected form Humbo Woreda

No

Local name

Botanical name

Family name

01

Woritafiya

Acacia brevispica Harms

Fabaceae

02

Wanigaya

Acacia senegal(L.)Wild

Fabaceae

03

Mulishakia

Acacia sp.

Fabaceae

04

Badana

Balanites aegyptiaca(L.)Del.

Balanitaceae

05

Deshalomiya

Capparis fascicularis DC.

Capparidaceae

06

Sobuwa

Combretum sp.

Combretaceae

07

Anissa

Commiphora habessinica(Berg) Engl.

Burseraceae

08

Mokota

Corcia africana Lam.

Boraginaceae

10

Wolla

Ficus platyphylla Del.

Moraceae

11

Gumaria

Grewia villosa Willd

Tiliaceae

12

Tawayiya

Grewiabicolor Juss.

Tiliaceae

13

Amibilata

Maerua angolensis DC

Capparidaceae

14

Wogara

Olea europaea L.subsp.cuspidata( Wall.ex G.Don)Cif

Oleaceae

15

Shatinita

Phyllanthus ovalifolius Forssk.

Euphorbiaceae

16

Ongafiria

Rhus natalensis Krauss

Anacardiaceae

17

Qobuwa

Ricinus communis L.

Euphorbiaceae

18

Bulluwa

Solanum incanum L.

Solanaceae

19

Lalla

Teclea nobilis Del.

Rutaceae

20

Gamogadia

Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst.ex A.Rich.

Rhamnaceae



Table 4. Chemical composition and in-vitro organic matter digestibility (% DM) of browses mostly selected by goats in Humbo and Damot Gale woreda

Location

Local name

Botanical name

CP

NDF

ADF

IVOMD  

Humbo

Wortafia

Acacia brevispica Harms

22.9

19.5

16.6

52.6

Humbo

Wanigaya

Acacia senegal(L.)Wild

23.4

34.1

16.2

53.4

Damot Gale

Goganta

Acacia seyal Del.

22.1

25.2

21.2

51.5

Humbo

Mulishakia

Acacia sp.

21.1

38

24.1

54.2

Humbo

Badana

Balanites aegyptiaca(L.)Del.

23.5

28.9

20.3

53.8

Damo Gale

Deshalomia

Capparis fascicularis DC.

23.1

27.6

17.6

50.8

Humbo

Sobuwa

Combretum sp.

22.7

31.6

15.4

52.5

Humbo

Anissa

Commiphora habessinica(Berg) Engl.

22.6

32.9

21.3

54.1

Damot Gale

Sankara

Dodonea angustifolius L.F.

23.1

39.7

18.9

54.7

Damot Gale

Etriwanjiya

Ehretia cymosa Thonn.

21.3

23.5

12.5

54.1

Damot Gale

Megara

Euclea divinorum Hiem

21.1

37.8

23.2

55.4

Humbo

Gumaria

Grewia villosa Willd

22.1

47.6

22.9

52.1

Humbo

Tawayia

Grewiabicolor Juss.

20.5

34

29.9

53.1

Humbo

Ambilita

Maerua angolensis DC

23.1

40.4

33.1

42.4

DamotGale

Gerishuwa

Maytenus senegalensis( Lam.)Exell

23.7

50.1

34.4

55.2

Humbo

Shatinita

Phyllanthus ovalifolius Forssk

23.5

42.9

30.6

53.9

Damot Gale

Ongafiria

Rhus natalensis Krauss

20.7

36.4

18.6

54.2

Damot Gale

Bulluwa

Solanum incanum L.

22.6

38.9

23.2

53.2

Humbo

Lalla

Teclea nobilis Del.

23.4

19.9

15.8

57.8


Conclusion and recommendations


Acknowledgements

Our thanks are due to Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR) for the financial support and Areka Agricultural Research Center for facility support. Woreda and Kebele administrations and development agents in the study sites provided immense assistances during the data collection and duly appreciated.


References

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Received 31 August 2018; Accepted 17 November 2018; Published 1 February 2019

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