Livestock Research for Rural Development 31 (11) 2019 LRRD Misssion Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Growth performance of broiler chicks fed cassava sieviate and leaf meal diet

A S Kehinde, T O Babatunde1 and J O Kehinde2

Department of Wildlife and Ecotourism, Forestry Research Institute of Jericho, Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria
osuba01@yahoo.com
1 Department of Forestry Technology, Federal College of Forestry Jericho, Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria
2 Onigambari Forest Reserve, Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria

Abstract

Day old broiler chicks (n=288) , with an average weight(1007.0g) were randomly allotted to four treatments, with cassava sieviate - leaf meal (CSLM) as replacement for maize. CSLM is a composite meal from cassava sieviate meal (CSM) and cassava leaf meal (CLM) mixed at 50% each by weight (DM basis). Cassava sieviate is a byproduct from processing of cassava roots to produce cassava flour. Maize replacement by CSLM was at 0, 15, 30 and 45% DM basis. CSLM replacement for maize reduced feed intake, did not affect weight gain, improved feed to gain ratio and reduced dressing percentage.

Keywords: cyanide, proximate composition


Introduction

Market Survey has shown that the cost of poultry feed is high and has resulted to high cost of poultry products. Karagiya et al ( 2016) and Asgher et al ( 2000).The high cost of conventional feedstuffs, such as maize, soyabean, millet, wheat and groundnut cake has been reported to be responsible (Olayemi and Robert 2000).This is because of the competition between humans, industry and animals for the conventional feedstuffs Bhuyan et al (2012).In order to reduce the cost of broiler chicks production, cheaper alternative feedstuffs are being sought to replace the expensive conventional ones. This has led to the adoption of several cassava by products, such as cassava leaf, peel, sieviate, chaff and flour (Kehinde et al 2007; Atteh 2004).

The identified challenges of adoption of cassava byproducts such as dustiness, high level of cyanide, low crude protein have been overcome by treatments like soaking, drying, frying, peeling, pressing and addition of oil where necessary. These processes help to reduce cyanide to a tolerable level. In this study, the variety of tropical manihot species used was sweet variety (TMS) 30572, which is very low in cyanide, below 100ppm and regarded as non toxic by Agunbiade et al (2002). Two cassava by –products, cassava leaf meal (CLM) and cassava sieviate meal (CSM) ,were mixed 50% each by weight to produce a composite feedstuff known as cassava sieviate leaf meal (CSLM). CSLM has 8.50% crude protein, which was used to replace maize in broiler chicks diets at starter and finisher phases up to 45%. It has been reported that the fastest means of meeting the protein gap in Nigeria is through table egg and broiler meat (Alikwe and Nodu 2013). WHO (2014) has projected that protein need in Africa will increase by 200% between 2010-2020, so urgent step must be taken to meet the increasing protein need.


Materials and methods

Experimental site

The trial was conducted in the teaching and research farm of Federal College of Wild-life, New Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria. The chicks’ house is made up of a conventional brooder unit and a open sided, well ventilated pen. The chicks were raised on deep litter system, with non-toxic wood shaven as bedding materials.

Experimental birds

The sourcing of the day old chicks was based on market information on the quality of the birds. The chicks were purchased from a reputable hatchery. A total of 288 day old chicks were randomly allotted to cassava sieviate – leaf meal based diets (CSLM)at 0, 15, 30 and 45% . At the hatchery, they were vaccinated against Marek’s and Newcastle diseases.

Experimental diets and management of chicks

Experimental diets were formulated to meet the physiological needs of starter and finisher broilers, with appropriate levels of crude protein and metabolizable energy. Appropriate temperature was maintained for brooding of chicks, coupled with right medication and vaccination. They were offered water and known quantity of feed every day. Daily feed intake was determined as the difference between feed offered and left over in grams. The weight gain of the chicks was determined on a weekly basis, while the value of the weight gain and feed intake were used to estimate the feed conversion ratio. The cost of all inputs were considered, such as day old chicks, feed ingredients, pen house used, labour, electricity, water, medication, vaccination, drinkers, feeders and other axilliary inputs were considered to compute the expenditure, while the revenue generated was calculated from sales of sales the birds at current market price. Profitability was determined as the difference between total revenue and total expenditure on production.

Experimental Design

The experiment was laid out in a complete randomized design which was used to evaluate the effect of Cassava sieviate leaf meal as replacement for maize at (0,15,30 and 45%) on growth performance, Carcass yield and economy of broiler production. A total of 288 chicks were randomly allotted to four treatments(diets with CSLM as replacement for maize at 0,15,30 and 45%) at 72 chicks per treatments of three replicates each in a one way Anova model.

Processing of experimental feed stuffs

Cassava leaves used for this trial were sourced from the college farm after the harvesting of the tuber, The sieviate a product of cassava tuber processing after the tuber has undergone peeling, grating, solid state fermentation and sieving. The remminant of the sieving process during cassava flour production is the sieviate. The sieved part will be roasted to produce cassava flour. The sieviate accounts for 2-3% of the tuber (Tewe 1997)

Chemical and data analysis

Feed samples and cassava by products (Cassava sieviate meal, Cassava leaf meal and Cassava sieviate leaf meal) were analyzed using the method of AOAC (2006). All data generated were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA); while treatment means were separated using Statistical Analysis System (2002).


Result

Table 1. shows the proximate composition of cassava Sieviate Meal (CSM), Cassava Leaf Meal (CLM) and Cassava Sieviate – Leaf meal (CSLM). CSM, CLM and CSLM had dry matter values of 89.94%, 87.36% and 88.65% respectively. Least crude protein (2.34%) was recorded for CSM and highest (19.45%) for CLM. Highest crude fiber (12.15%) was recorded for CLM and least for CSM. CSM had highest (74.88%) NFE.

Table 1. Proximate composition of Cassava Seviate Meal, Cassava Leaf Meal and Cassava Sieviate Leaf Meal

Parameter (%)

CSM

CLM

CSLM

Dry matter

89.9

87.4

88.6

Crude protein

2.34

19.45

10.9

Crude fibre

7.35

12.15

9.75

Ether Extract

0.25

2.10

1.17

Ash

5.12

8.94

7.03

Nitrogen Free Extract

74.9

44.7

59.8

Note CSM = Cassava Sieviate Meal, CLM=Cassava Leaf Meal CSLM = Cassava Sieviate Leaf Meal. CSM, CLM and CSLM were locally sourced and available all year round

Table 2. elicited the gross composition of CSLM based diets fed to broiler chicks at starter and finisher phases. The diets contained graded levels of CSLM (0%,15.0%, 30.0% and 45.0%) as replacement for Maize. The diets had comparable levels of fixed ingredients, such as bone meal (1.00%), Limestone (0.25%). Methionine (0.25%), Lysine (0.25%), salt (0.25%). The estimated crude protein for starter phase diets was 22% and finisher phase was 20%, all diets in the phases had about 2800 kcal/kg M.E.

Table 2. Gross composition of cassava sieviate leaf meal based diets fed to broiler starter and finisher chicks

Ingredient

Starter broiler diets

Finisher broiler diet

0%
CSLM)

15%
CSLM

30%
CSLM

45%
CSLM

0%
CSLM

15%
CSLM

30%
CSLM

45%
CSLM

Maize

47.00

39.95

32.90

25.85

45.00

38.25

31.50

24.75

Maize Bran

9.00

9.00

9.00

9.00

15.00

15.18

15.86

15.50

CSLM

-

7.05

14.10

21.15

-

6.75

13.50

20.25

Soya Bean

14.00

14.00

14.00

14.00

15.00

15.00

15.00

15.00

Cake

13.00

13.00

13.00

13.00

11.00

11.00

11.00

11.00

GNC

7.00

7.00

7.00

7.00

6.00

6.00

6.00

6.00

PKC

6.00

6.00

6.00

6.00

4.00

4.00

4.00

4.00

Fish meal

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

Bone Meal

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Lime Stone

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

Methionine

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

Lysine

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

Salt

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

Premix

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

Total (kg)

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Calculated composition

Crude protein %

22.54

22.54

22.47

22.49

20.74

20.70

20.66

20.65

Metabolize Energy kcal/kg

2,887

2,878

2,868

2,828

2,842

2,833

2,823

2,725

Determined Composition

Dry matter

93.80

90.72

91.34

90.67

90.20

89.30

90.20

91.22

Crude protein

20.80

23.29

22.97

21.70

19.90

19.45

19.04

18.78

Vitamin-mineral premix contains the following: Vitamin A 15,000,000.00: Vitamin D3 3000,000.00, Vitamin E 80,000 IU, Vitamin K 2500mgr, Thiamin (B1) 2000mgr, Riboflavin (B2) 6000mgr, Pyridoxine (B6) 4000mgr, Vitamin B12 20mgr, Pantothenic Acid 10,000mgr, Bioton 80mgr, Cholin chloride 500gr, Antioxidant 125gr, Manganese 96gr, Zinc 60gr, Iron 24gr, Copper 60gr Iodine 14gr. Selenium 240gr, Cobalt 120gr

Table 3. Shows the growth performance and economic of production of broiler chicks fed cassava sieviate leaf meal based diets. The chicks had comparable initial body weight gain and mean body weight gain. Weight gain values obtained were 1.75kg (0%CSLM), 1.65kg (15%CSLM), 1.70kg (30%CSLM), and 1.70kg (45%CSLM). Highest (P <0.05) mean feed intake was recorded for 0%CSLM (4.60kg), this however reduced significantly from 0%CSLM to 45%CSLM. Dressing percentage was highest (P<0.05) in 0%CSLM and least (62.00%) in 45%CSLM.

Table 3. Growth performance of broiler chicks fed cassava sieviate leaf meal based diets

Parameter

0%
CSLM

15%
CSLM

30%
CSLM

45%
CSLM

SEM

Initial weight (g)

100

105

101

107

7.50

Weight gain (kg)

1.75

1.65

1.70

1.70

0.20

Feed intake (kg)

4.60a

3.83 b

3.98 b

3.68 a

0.15

Feed to gain ratio

2.63b

2.32 b

2.34 b

2.13 a

0.20

Dressing %

74.3 a

65.0 b

63.5c

62.0 d

1.20

Means within the same row with different superscripts are different at p<0.05


Discussion

The feed stuffs were evaluated for their proximate composition to elicit the dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract, ash and NFE. The three feed stuffs adopted were cassava sieviate meal (CSM), cassava leaf meal (CLM) and cassava sieviate leaf meal (CSLM). The use of Cassava products, in monogastric nutrition is impaired by its low level of crude protein, however the composite Cassava Sieviate Leaf Meal(CSLM) had improved crude protein (10.89%), which was an upgrade of the 2.34% CP recorded for CSM. CSLM was achieved by mixing CSM and CLM at 50% each (weight for weight). This same approach was adopted by Kehinde (2009) and Agunbiade et al (2007). The improved crude protein in CSLM made it a good replacement for maize with crude protein of 10.0% (Atteh 2004).

The gross composition of experimental diets was computed based on the physiological state of experimental chicks and age. The two diets were starter and finisher diets, Oluyemi and Robert (2000) stated that two regimes of feeding were adopted for broiler production namely, starter and finisher diets; this was further corroborated by types of broiler diets available in Nigerian markets. The levels of crude protein and energy in the diets agreed with the findings of Kehinde et al (2006); when they determined the appropriate crude protein requirement of broiler chicks raised in the tropics.

Growth performance and economy of production of boiler chicks fed CSLM based diets reveal a non significant (P<0.05) initial body weight and mean weight gain, ra feed intake was depressed with increased dietary CSLM inclusion from 0%CSLM to 45%CSLM, this agreed with the view of shaahu and Tiough (2019), when they inferred that this trend could be due to high fibre in cassava leaf based diet and the bitter nature of CSLM based diets (Tewe 1997). Feed intake, growth rate and carcass yield are directly related, if there is no impairment to digestion. Highest carcass yield (74.28%) was obtained in 0%CSLM and least (62.00%) in 45%CSLM.

The cost of feed reduced with the increased inclusion of cassava by products as replacement of maize, which is scarce, seasonally produced and expensive. A sustainable reduction in the price of feed can be achieved by using CSLM, which is available throughout the year, less expensive and non-toxic to the birds. (Kehinde 2009). Tiough et al (2016) was also of the view that CSLM based diets are less expensive and that price of feed and cost of production reduced with increased inclusion of CSLM.


Conclusion


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Received 19 July 2019; Accepted 1 October 2019; Published 2 November 2019

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