Livestock Research for Rural Development 30 (9) 2018 Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Candidate fodder trees and shrubs for sustainable ruminant production in northern Ghana

Franklin Kodzo Avornyo, Robert Zougmore1, Samuel Partey1 and Kevin Tengan

Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Animal Research Institute, P O Box 52, Tamale, N R, Ghana
favornyo@yahoo.com
1 International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Bamako, Mali

Abstract

A survey was done to document preferred browse plants and farmers’ knowledge about them for sustainable ruminant production in northern Ghana. The study was done in Jirapa and Lawra Districts of Upper West Region of Ghana. A questionnaire was used to interview 50 farmers per district. Tables and graphs were drawn to summarize results.

Ruminant production was a predominantly male occupation (p=0.032). It was also in the domain of the lowly educated (p=0.003). Ninety-seven percent (97%) of the respondents had goats with about half of them having sheep and 17% owning cattle. The overriding (99%) reason for rearing ruminants was to serve as a source of income. In the dry season, ruminants were kept on free range. In the wet season, small ruminants were tethered with or without feed supplementation. A total of 34 browse plants were identified and the most frequently browsed were Fadherbia albida, Ficus sycomorus gnaphalocarpa, Afzelia africana, Pterocarpus erinaceus, Combretum molle and Annona senegalensis. Paramount among the challenges faced by the owners were limited grazing land, feed scarcity and theft. Apart from being fodder sources, the identified browse species were soil improvers, medicinal and human food sources. All respondents grew crops and the most frequently cultivated crops were groundnut, maize, cowpea, bambara groundnuts, sorghum, millet, rice and yam in this decreasing order. Ninety percent (90%) of the respondents fed crop residue to their animals, with the commonest, groundnut haulm, fed by about 80% of the respondents. Twenty-eight different types of trees/shrubs were identified on respondents’ farms.

Keywords: browse, climate change, feed, integrated systems, multipurpose


Introduction

Livestock production employs over 60% of rural households in the three northern regions of Ghana (MOFA 2012; Panyan et al 2012), making investment in this industry critical for alleviating poverty and enhancing food security. Among other factors, Avornyo et al (2007) reported access to sustainable feed supply as one of the livestock industry’s key constraints. As most livestock are kept on a free-range system, forage of fair nutritive value is normally scarce in the dry season due to prolonged droughts, continuous over-grazing and lack of range improvement interventions (Konlan et al 2016). As a result, highly palatable and productive perennial grasses, legumes and herb species have been replaced by unpalatable, low quality annual species, with a concomitant loss of soil fertility (Estell et al 2014). The nutritive value of the remaining predominant pasture species is very poor with an average crude protein (CP) content of less than 7%, and grazing livestock are deficient in about 50% of their required CP intake (Khan and Habib 2012). In addition, due to seasonal rainfall, the year-round feed availability and quality in these rangelands fluctuate substantially. For example, pasture abundance increases with a concurrent improvement in quality in the rainy seasons, whereas pasture abundance and quality generally decline in the course of prolonged dry periods. During pasture scarcity periods, livestock are fed on cereal crop residues and low-quality rangeland hay. These low quality forage based diets impede livestock productivity due to lower dry matter (DM) intake, and lower digestibility and nutritive value of ingested feed.

Research has established that supplementation of CP, minerals and energy-rich feeds optimizes microbial fermentation of low quality fibrous feeds in the rumen which in turn increases total DM intake and improves animal productivity (Khan et al 2009; Patra 2010). However, in the predominant small scale, subsistence farming systems in the northern regions of Ghana, most of the farmers cannot afford a continuous supplementation of concentrate feeds to their animals. Recent research is therefore directed towards the exploration of an affordable and abundant, alternate CP and energy-rich feeds. In this regard, tree leaves have received increasing attention, due to many advantages such as supply of good quality green fodder during the dry periods, and high CP and mineral contents (Khan and Habib 2012; Habib et al 2013). Recent findings show that tree leaves can be more efficiently utilized as a low-cost CP and mineral supplement to the low-quality fibrous diets in the tropics, particularly during the prolonged feed scarcity periods (Patra 2010). Considering this need, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) has used Climate-Smart Village (CSV) models in Ghana to promote the adoption of Climate-Smart Agricultural (CSA) interventions such as agroforestry and farmer managed natural regeneration practices that promote the management of useful fodder tree and shrub species. It is envisaged that the adoptability and wider applicability of the aforementioned tree-based CSA practices will dwell on knowledge about priority fodder species in the CSV communities and evidence of their nutritive characteristics. While various authors have documented potential fodder species in the project areas, less is known about farmer perceptions of their use, priorities among livestock producers and the nutrient supply capabilities of the fodder species. Data on the above is crucial for strategic livestock farm technology development, feeding and supplementation to livestock ration in the region.

The study was designed to:


Methodology

Study location

The geographical focus of this study was Lawra and Jirapa Districts of Upper West Region of Ghana. Lawra District lies between latitude 10o 35’- 10o 40’ North and longitude 2 o 50’ - 2o 53’ West while Jirapa District is located within latitudes 10 25' and 11 00' North and longitudes 2 25' - 2 40' West. The districts have mean annual temperatures ranging between 28C and 31C. During the months of June to October, the districts experience a single rainy season induced by the moist monsoon winds with an intensity of 1,000-1,100 mm per annum and relative humidity ranging between 70 and 90% but falling to 20% in the dry season. The area is occupied by one main indigenous ethnic group namely the Dagaaba who speak slightly varying dialects of the Dagare language.

Questionnaire administration

A combination of desktop review, questionnaire interviews and direct field observations were used. With the assistance of the staff of the Department of Agriculture of the two districts, 100 smallholder farmers were randomly selected such that 50 were from each district. For questionnaire interviews, data was collected on the types of ruminants reared by farmers, feeding practices, common and priority feed sources, feeding experience across seasons, ethno-botanical knowledge on prioritized fodder trees and shrubs and crop-livestock integration practices.

Data analysis

Chi-square was used to compare actual values against expected values. Paired T-Test was also used to separate means. Tables and graphs were plotted for summary of the results.


Results and discussion

Demographics

With 21% of the respondents being female, rearing of ruminants was predominantly a male activity (p=0.032) in the study area. Ansah and Nagbila (2011) made a similar observation in the Upper East Region of Ghana. However, Ogunlana et al (2006), in their study in South Western Nigeria, reported that most small ruminants were owned by women. Seventy-two percent (72%) of those who reared ruminants had no formal education. About 19% of them had primary education, 8% had secondary education and 1% had tertiary education. Long distance to school was cited as one reason for the low literacy rate. This was irrespective of gender.

Livestock production system

All the female respondents kept goats, but only 38% of them had sheep and none had cattle. For the men, 96% had goats, 61% had sheep and 22% had cattle. Generally, preference was for goats in the ratio of 3.4:3:1 for goat, sheep and cattle, respectively. Goats were cheaper to acquire, more difficult to steal and exercised better nutritional wisdom, for example, by avoiding the consumption of polythene material, when compared to sheep. While ruminant population worldwide has increased by about 48% in the past 50 years, that of goat has doubled in 30 years, mainly because of their increased production in Africa and Asia (Estell et al 2014). Goats have wide-ranging feeding habits and have a wide choice of feedstuffs including browse which characteristically are perennial and therefore available even in the dry season (Agrawal et al 2014; Preston and Gomez unpbl). They are also less sensitive to environmental changes, more resistant to dehydration and more efficient in fibre digestion (Agrawal et al 2014).

In the dry season, their sheep and goats were left on free range. Cattle were herded throughout the year occasionally with sheep. Semi-intensive system was not a common practice in both dry and wet seasons. The common practice in the wet season was tethering of sheep and goats on communal grazing land to graze soilage with or without feed supplementation.

The overwhelming reason (99%) for rearing ruminants was for storage of wealth and depending on it to settle school fees, hospital bills, buy farm inputs, clothing, housing construction, food ingredients particularly during the farming season, source of meat at festivities and during sacrifices, and also so as to reduce the need for farm families to sell food crops reserved for home consumption. The farmers rarely considered ruminant rearing a business enterprise even though most of their animals were sold. However, the younger respondents appeared to be more commercially-oriented than the older respondents. Compared to the women, the men appeared to be more commercially-oriented. Also respondents with a higher level of education appeared to be more commercially-oriented. When the different marital statuses were compared, it appeared that the widowed were more commercially-oriented, and families with 4 to 6 dependants seemed to be more commercially-oriented than the other family types (Figure 1). These values however were all not statistically different.

Figure 1. Ruminant production objectives of various categories of respondents

According to the respondents, the most frequently browsed plants on both free range and under intensive system included Faidherbia albida, Ficus sycomorus gnaphalocarpa, Afzelia africana, Pterocarpus erinaceus, Combretum molle and Annona senegalensis (Figures 2 and 3). All these species were indigenous (Table 1). Mulatu and Kassa (2001) identified F. albida as highly preferred by farmers in Ethiopia. Generally, exotic species such as Leucaena leucocephala and Albizia lebbeck tended to have higher crude protein content than their indigenous counterparts, and therefore might be more degradable (Larbi et al 1998). This notwithstanding, indigenous species appeared to have more uses (Mulatu and Kassa 2001). Apart from being fodder materials, the presence of anti-nutritive factors in these species confers some medicinal properties on them (Ansah and Nagbila 2011; Ziblim et al 2013; Saganuwan 2017) (Table 2). Also the presence of these factors could contribute to a reduction in the production of methane and ammonia gas when the plants are consumed by ruminants (Estell et al 2014; Maselema and Chigwa 2017). Studies on 15 fodder species in India however showed that they were suitable as ruminant feed as most of them contained less than 5% condensed tannin (Das et al 2010). Binh et al (2017) have demonstrated that brewers’ grains, as additive, has the ability to enhance the capacity of rumen microbial populations and immune system to neutralize most anti-nutritive substances in browse plants. Feed residue resulting from supplementation of browse constitutes a suitable resource for the production of biochar which is able to adsorb microbial flora and fauna as well as plant nutrients and carbon by sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide into the soil (Preston and Gomez unpbl). When tested on livestock, improvements in the growth of cattle were reported when biochar formed 1% of their diet (Sengsouly and Preston 2016). Apparently, biochar, like brewers’ grains, has a detoxifying effect on browse plants.

Figure 2. Ten most commonly browsed plants in the study area


Figure 3. Common feeds offered under intensive system


Table 1. Identification of fodder species

No.

Scientific name

Common name

Local names (Dagare)

Characteristics

1

Faidherbia albida

White acacia

Gozanga/Gozan

Deciduous multipurpose tree that sheds its leaves in the wet season

2

Ficus sycomorus gnaphalocarpa

Mulberry fig

Kakanga

Semi-deciduous multipurpose tree; edible; medicinal

3

Ficus cordata subsp. lecardii

Kankantechira/Kankanwie

Multipurpose shrub or tree

4

Cordia myxa

Sapistan plum

Tongbo/Tangbon

Evergreen multipurpose shrub or tree; fruits eaten; for glue

5

Pterocarpus erinaceus

African kino

Nyaga/Neiga/ deega/Ligah

Deciduous multipurpose tree

6

Combretum molle

Lingbira/Damui

Evergreen to deciduous multipurpose shrub

7

Magifera indica

Mango

Evergreen multipurpose tree; edible

8

Blighia sapida

Akee

Kyiraa

Evergreen multipurpose tree

9

Hibiscus sabdariffa

Roselle

Biri

Annual to perennial multipurpose woody plant

10

Vitex doniana

Black plum

Haara/Agna Aanna /Oorna Leaves called banigbe/bornabe

Deciduous multipurpose tree

11

Afzelia africana

African mahogany

Kakala

Deciduous multipurpose tree; not used as fuelwood as it causes sickness; used in the establishment of sacred groves

12

Annona senegalensis

Wild/African custard apple

Baantang/ Bentaora

Deciduous multipurpose multi-stemmed shrub

13

Khaya senegalensis

Dry-zone mahogany

Kog/ko

Evergreen to deciduous multipurpose tree

14

Celtis intergrifolia

Kyeo/kio

Evergreen multipurpose tree

15

Anogeissus leiocarpus

African Birch

Siktre/sigtir

Evergreen multipurpose shrub to small/medium size tree

16

Diospyros mespiliformis

West African ebony

Gaa

Evergreen multipurpose shrub to tree

17

Adansonia digitata

Baobab

Tuo

Deciduous multipurpose tree

18

Sclerocarya birrea

Marula

Bunununa/Busina

Deciduous multipurpose tree; gives vitality; leaves & fruits eaten

19

Tapinanthus globiferus subsp. bangwensis

African mistletoe

Taanwiel/Liridaa/Singbon

Partial plant parasite, medicinal

20

Detarium microcarpum

Sweet dattock

Kpalaa/kpagra

Deciduous multipurpose shrub or small tree

21

Bombax costatum

Red-flowered silk cotton tree

Vagatie/varor/vara/ Vagaa

Deciduous multipurpose tree

22

Vitellaria paradoxa

Shea butter tree

Tantie

Deciduous multipurpose small to medium-sized tree

23

Anacardium occidentale

Cashew

Tian

Evergreen multipurpose shrub or small tree

24

Azadirachta indica

Neem

Datuo/flower tie

Evergreen multipurpose fast-growing long-lived tree

25

Strychnos spinosa

Kaffir orange/Green monkey orange

Papalore/Panpalure/Pompuloro/Punpunluura

Deciduous multipurpose multi-stemmed shrub or small tree; fruits in the rainy season but no leaves

26

Cussonia arborea

Kontie/Konkongtie

Deciduous multipurpose tree; ruminants feed on flowers; not used as fuelwood because it increases appetite

27

Parkia biglobosa

African locust bean

Duor/ Dawadawa

Deciduous multipurpose tree

28

Crataevia adansonii

None

Donkuma/Dungnakuna

Deciduous multipurpose tree; food/feed/medicinal

29

Acacia nilotica

Tomentosa babool

Gorgor

Tree; leaves/flowers/fruits; thorny; medicine for human anaemia/stomach ulcer

30

Lannea microcarpa

Sensigre/ Ansigne/ Suge/sugo/ansigne

Deciduous multipurpose tree

31

Tamarindus indica

Tamarind

Pootie/ Pooray/Pooretie

Evergreen to deciduous multipurpose long-lived tree

32

Saba senegalensis

Ora

Multipurpose shrub

33

Manilkara multinervis

Kultanga/ Katanga

Deciduous multipurpose tree

34

Dichrostachys glomerata

Sickle bush

Sunsule/Susugle

Deciduous/semi-deciduous multipurpose shrub or small tree; for making xylophone; flowers are the edible part; thorny

Source of some of the information: Forestry Services Division, Lawra, Ghana; Arbonnier (2004); Fern et al (2014); CSIR - Animal Research Institute; Dr. B. N. Baatuuwie, University for Development Studies, Nyankpala, Ghana

The male respondents harvested a wider variety of browse plants for their animals compared to the women (Figure 4). Harvesting of browse was more a preoccupation of the men than the women, probably because the trees were tall and their fodder was difficult to access (Ansah and Nagbila 2011). The women harvested F. albida, A. africana, Celtis intergrifolia and Azadirachta indica (neem). Harvesting of C. intergrifolia and neem seemed to be predominantly a female activity. Celtis intergrifolia and neem were often located near the house. In Jirapa District, harvesting of A. senegalensis for ruminants did not seem to be a common activity (Figure 3) even though its consumption at range was quite significant (Figure 2). Often it was grazed at a tender age before it could grow into a mature shrub in the project community. According to Franzel et al (2003), the use of calliandra shrubs as a supplement or substitute for dairy meal increased profit margins of dairy farmers in Central Kenya.

Figure 4. Common feeds offered by men and women in project communities

Paramount among the challenges mentioned was feed scarcity partly due to senescence of vegetation, limited grazing land, devastation by bush burning and heavy downpour interfering with grazing activity. Water scarcity, theft and drudgery were also highlighted. Women reported more theft/animal loss cases than the men (P<0.005).

Preferred fodder species and ethno-botanical knowledge

The leaves of A. senegalensis were used to bath newly born babies in order for them to develop strong bones and help babies to grow fat. It was also used to treat bone fractures (Table 2). The leaves of all 34 identified fodder plants were edible to ruminants. Apart from the leaves, the fruits of F. albida, Spondias mombin, F. gnaphalocarpa, C. myxa and V. doniana were also harvested and fed to ruminants. In some cases, the inflorescence was consumed as well.

Table 2. Additional knowledge on some of the identified fodder species

No.

Fodder

Additional knowledge

1

Faidherbia albida

Induces prolificacy in animals; medicinal/dewormer; enhances soil fertility; wood/fuelwood; fire resistant; seasonal and sheds its leaves in the wet season

2

Ficus sycomorus gnaphalocarpa

Pig feed; medicinal/dewormer; food; fuelwood; fire resistant; available year round

3

Cordia myxa

Food

4

Combretum molle

Medicinal/dewormer; fire resistant; seasonal; available in the wet season

5

Mangifera indica

Treatment of fever; food

6

Blighia sapida

Food

7

Vitex doniana

Medicinal; food

8

Afzelia africana

Induces prolificacy; dewormer; timber; fuelwood; fire resistant; available year round

9

Pterocarpus erinaceus

Induces prolificacy; medicinal/dewormer; for making xylophone; fuelwood; available year round

10

Annona senegalensis

Medicinal ; food; fire resistant

11

Celtis intergrifolia

Induces prolificacy; vegetable/food; fire resistant

12

Moringa oleifera

Medicinal

13

Spondias mombin

Gives vitality

14

Azadirachta indica

Feed tender leaves; fire resistant

15

Adansonia digitata

Medicinal

16

Detarium microcarpum

Induces prolificacy

Most of the aforementioned fodder plants were targeted for feeding to goats because most of the community members owned goats and fewer had sheep and cattle. Thapa et al (1997) have observed differential preference of fodder by the various ruminant species. According to Paterson (1993), while cattle show preference for soft-leafed fodder, goats prefer fodder with tough leaves, with sheep in-between these two. Respondents who claimed to experience feed shortage for their ruminants constituted 32% (a third) in the Lawra enclave but probably more at Jirapa (44%) (Figure 5). While the majority of those who experienced feed scarcity in Lawra District indicated that feed was relatively abundant in the wet season, the opposite was the case in Jirapa District. Fodder from F. albida and other fodder trees was abundant in Jirapa District in the dry season for feeding of ruminants.

Figure 5. Extent of feed shortage in the project communities and periods of perceived abundant feed
Evidence of integrated production system

All one hundred (100) respondents grew crops alongside animal rearing. The more frequently mentioned crops were groundnut, maize, cowpea, bambara groundnuts, sorghum, millet, rice and yam listed in this decreasing order. Crops that were least mentioned were tomato, pepper, soybean, sweet potato, okra, cassava, Mucuna sp and Moringa oleifera. The most frequently cultivated crops by the female respondents were groundnut, maize, cowpea, bambara groundnuts, sorghum, millet and rice.

Ninety percent (90%) of the respondents fed crop residue to their ruminants. When the sample was separated into male and female groups, it was realized that 90% of respondents in each gender group fed crop residue. Feeding of crop residue might be an indication of increasing scarcity of feed at pasture for animals.

Groundnut haulm was observed to be the commonest crop residue given to ruminants in the study area, as it was fed by an average of about 80% of the respondents. Maize stover, mentioned by about 60% of the respondents was probably also offered to an appreciable extent. Crop residues which were fed by about 20 to 40% of the respondents included millet stalk, bambara groundnut vines, sorghum stalk and cowpea vines. Feeding of yam peel and potato vines was hardly mentioned because they were not commonly cultivated.

Management of trees on crop farms

Presence of trees on crop farms was very characteristic of the project areas. Declining availability of fodder trees and shrubs on communal lands as well as certain cultural practices would promote their availability and conservation on crop farms (Thapa et al 1997). Majority of the farmers did not have the capacity to cultivate a variety of tree species however awareness with regard to tending of multipurpose tree seedlings on farmlands, rangelands, around homes and fallow lands was imminent. This notwithstanding, there may be restrictions with planting of economic trees on leased lands (Ogunlana et al 2006). Solorio Sanchez and Solorio Sanchez (2002) reported that trees which were propagated by cuttings as opposed to seedlings tended to have shallow roots and therefore were more vulnerable to drought and wind.

Twenty-eight (28) trees/shrubs in total were listed as present on respondents’ farms, and out of this number, 22 were ruminant feeds while 18 constituted foods for human beings indicating that some of these species were satisfying both needs. Actually, 15 species were characterized as both animal and human food sources (Table 3). These plant species served other needs as well, for example, soil fertility improvement, income source, timber, fuelwood, medicine, provision of shade, windbreaks, reducing soil erosion and inducing rainfall. During periods of food scarcity, which invariably coincided with the farming season, some of these plant species became significant food sources for the people. The most commonly mentioned tree/shrub species as present on respondents’ farms were Mangifera indica, F. albida, Vitellaria paradoxa, Parkia biglobosa, F. sycomorus gnaphalocarpa, Blighia sapida, Anacardium occidentale, Diospyros mespiliformis, A. africana and M. oleifera, listed in this decreasing order. However, in terms of plant population, V. paradoxa probably had the highest density.

Table 3. Trees/shrubs maintained or cultivated on crop farms

No.

Tree/Shrub

Reason

1

F. albida

Animal feed; income generation; soil fertility improvement; mitigate soil erosion; windbreak; fuelwood shade

2

F. sycomorus gnaphalocarpa

Animal feed; soil fertility improvement; fuelwood; shade

3

Cussonia arborea

Animal feed; increases rainfall

4

Cordia myxa

Animal feed; human food

5

Combretum molle

Animal feed; soil fertility improvement

6

Mangifera indica

Animal feed; human food; income generation; shade

7

Blighia sapida

Animal feed; human food; shade

8

Hibiscus sabdariffa

Animal feed; human food

9

Vitex doniana

Animal feed; human food

10

Afzelia africana

Animal feed; soil fertility improvement; fuelwood

11

Pterocarpus erinaceus

Animal feed; soil fertility improvement; fuelwood; shade

12

Celtis intergrifolia

Animal feed; human food

13

Anacardium occidentale

Animal feed; human food; income generation

14

Vitellaria paradoxa

Animal feed; human food; income generation; shade

15

Parkia biglobosa

Animal feed; human food; income generation; fuelwood

16

Moringa oleifera

Animal feed; medicine; human food; soil fertility improvement

17

Crataevia adansonii

Animal feed; shade

18

Tectona grandis

Income generation; wood; shade

19

Cajanus cajan

Animal feed; fuelwood; human food

20

Acacia nilotica

21

Diospyros mespiliformis

Animal feed; human food; fuelwood

22

Lannea acida

Animal feed; human food

23

Orange

Human food

24

Azadirachta indica

Fuel wood; shade

25

Adansonia digitata

Animal feed; human food

26

Detarium microcarpum

Animal feed; human food

27

Psidium guajava

Human food

28

Saba senegalensis

Human food

There was a tendency for species that constituted food items or were potential sources of cash to be mentioned more frequently by the respondents as present on their farms. Of the 10 most common tree and shrub species found on their farms, seven served as both food and animal feed for the respondents. Moringa oleifera, P. biglobosa and B. sapida appeared to have been identified by the women more than the men.


Conclusion


Acknowledgements

This work was implemented as part of the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), a strategic partnership of CGIAR and Future Earth, led by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT). We acknowledge the CGIAR Fund Council, Australia (ACIAR), European Union, International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Ireland, New Zealand, Netherlands, Switzerland, USAID, UK and Thailand for funding to CCAFS.


References

Agrawal A R, Karim S A, Kumar R, Sahoo A and John P J 2014 Sheep and goat production: basic differences, impact on climate and molecular tools for rumen microbiome study. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, Volume 3, Article #1: 684-706. Retrieved August 09, 2018, from ijcmas.com/vol-3-1/A.R.Agrawal,%20et%20al.pdf

Ansah T and Nagbila D A 2011 Utilization of local trees and shrubs for sustainable livestock production in the Talensi-Nabdam District of the Upper East Region of Ghana. Livestock Research for Rural Development, Volume 23, Article #75. Retrieved July 19, 2017, from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd23/4/ansa23075.htm

Arbonnier M 2004 Trees, shrubs and lianes of West African dry zones. Margraf Publishers, GMBH, MNHN. 572 pp

Avornyo F K, Karbo N and Addo-Kwafo A 2007 The performance of sheep fed fonio or rice straw in combination with two levels of whole cottonseed. Ghana Journal of Animal Science, Volumes 2 & 3, Article #1: 89–96

Binh P L T, Preston T R, Duong K N and Leng R A 2017 A low concentration (4% in diet dry matter) of brewers’ grains improves the growth rate and reduces thiocyanate excretion of cattle fed cassava pulp-urea and “bitter” cassava foliage. Livestock Research for Rural Development. Volume 29, Article #104. Retrieved August 09, 2018 from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd29/5/phuo29104.html

Das K C, Hundal J, Mahapatra P S, Subudhi P K and Sharma K 2010 Chemical composition and in vitro gas production of fodder tree leaves and shrubs. Indian Veterinary Journal, Volume 87: 899-901. https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20103297534

Estell R E, Haystad K M, Cibils A F, Anderson D M and Scott T 2014 The changing role of shrubs in rangeland-based livestock production systems: Can shrubs increase our forage supply? Rangelands, Volume 36, Article # 2: 25-31. https://doi.org/10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-13-00066.1

Fern K, Fern A and Morris R 2014 Useful Tropical Plants Database. Available at tropical.theferns.info

Franzel S, Wambugu C, Tuwei P and Karanja G 2003 The adoption and scaling up of the use of fodder shrubs in Central Kenya. Tropical Grasslands, Volume 37: 239-250

Habib G, Saleem M and Hameed A 2013 Mineral composition of local tree leaves for feeding sheep and goats in Kohat district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, Volume 29: 97–103

Khan N A and Habib G 2012 Assessment of Grewia oppositifolia leaves as feed supplement: nutrient composition, protein degradability, N metabolism and growth rate in sheep. Tropical Animal Health and Production, Volume 44: 1375–1381

Khan N A, Habib G and Ullah G 2009 Chemical composition, rumen degradability, protein utilization and lactation response to selected tree leaves as substitute of cottonseed cake in the diet of dairy goats. Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 154: 160–168

Konlan S P, Ayantunde A A, Addah W, Dei H K and Avornyo F K 2016 Evaluation of feed resource availability for ruminant production in northern Ghana. International Journal of Livestock Research, Volume 6, Article# 6: 39-59. doi:10.5455/ijlr.20160613094759

Larbi A, Smith A W, Kurdi I O, Adenkule I O, Raji A M and Ladipo D O 1998 Chemical composition, rumen degradation and gas production characteristics of some multipurpose fodder trees and shrubs during wet and dry seasons in the humid tropics. Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 72: 81-96

Maselema D and Chigwa F C 2017 The potential of Richardia scabra and fodder tree leaf meals in reducing enteric methane from dairy cows during dry season. Livestock Research for Rural Development. Volume 29, Article #51. Retrieved August 7, 2018, from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd29/3/mase29051.html

[MoFA] Ministry of Food and Agriculture 2012 Agriculture in Ghana: Facts and Figures. Accra: Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Statistics, Research, and Information Directorate. https://www.agrofood-westafrica.com/fileadmin/user_upload/messen/agrofood-Westafrica/Brochure/AGRICULTURE-IN-GHANA-Facts-and-Figures-2015.pdf

Mulatu E and Kassa H 2001 Evolution of smallholder mixed farming systems in the Harar highlands of Ethiopia: The shift towards trees and shrubs. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Volume 18, Article# 4: 81-112

Ogunlana E A, Salokhe V and Lund R. 2006 Alley farming: A sustainable technology for crops and livestock production. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Volume 29, Article# 1: 131–144

Panyan E K, Karbo N, Avornyo F K, Ayantunde A and Shaibu M T 2012 Integrated rainwater management for crop-livestock agro-ecosystems: sharing baseline survey information in the Tolon-Kumbungu District of northern Ghana. In: Dei HK, Alhassan W, Karbo N, Avornyo FK, Fall A, Agyemang K, Naandam J, editors. Proceedings of a Regional Workshop held on August 27-28, 2012; Tamale N.R. (Ghana): GILLBT. Pp 162–172

Paterson R T 1993 Use of trees by livestock: Anti-nutritive factors. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UK

Patra A K 2010 Effects of supplementing low-quality roughages with tree foliages on digestibility, nitrogen utilization and rumen characteristics in sheep: a meta-analysis. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, Volume 94: 338–353

Preston T R and Gomez M E Unpbl Goat production integrated with agroforestry systems; a strategy to reduce the impact of livestock on global warming

Saganuwan A S 2017 Ethnoveterinary values of Nigerian medicinal plants: An overview. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Volume 18, Article 4:1-35. http://www.journalrepository.org/media/journals/EJMP_13/2017/May/Saganuwan1842016EJMP29321.pdf

Sengsouly P and Preston T R 2016 Effect of rice-wine distillers’ byproduct and biochar on growth performance and methane emissions in local “Yellow” cattle fed ensiled cassava root, urea, cassava foliage and rice straw. Livestock Research for Rural Development. Volume 28, Article #178. Retrieved August 7, 2018, from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd28/10/seng28178.html

Solorio Sanchez F J and Solorio Sanchez B 2002 Integrating fodder trees into animal production systems in the tropics. Tropical and Subtropical Agro-Ecosystems, Volume 1: 1-11. www.redalyc.org/pdf/939/93911238001.pdf

Thapa B, Walker D H and Sinclair F L. 1997 Indigenous knowledge of the feeding value of tree fodder. Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 67: 97-114

Ziblim I A, Khan AT and Eledi J D 2013 Exploitation and use of medicinal plants, Northern Region, Ghana. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Volume 7, Article # 27: 1984-1993. www.academicjournals.org/article/article1380728106_Ziblim%20et%20al.pdf


Received 30 June 2018; Accepted 12 August 2018; Published 3 September 2018

Go to top