Livestock Research for Rural Development 30 (6) 2018 Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Tick population on large and small ruminant species in the Port-Bouët cattle market in Abidjan, Ivory Coast

G L Yao-Acapovi1, J F Mavoungou2,3 and S L Sevidzem4,5

1 Laboratoire de Zoologie et Biologie Animale, Faculté des Sciences, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan-Côte d’Ivoire
2 Université des Sciences et Techniques de MASUKU, BP 941, Franceville, Gabon
3 Institut de Recherche en Ecologie Tropicale (IRET), BP 13354, Libreville, Gabon
4 Laboratory of the Institute of Evolution and Ecology, Department of Comparative Zoology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany
5 Programme Onchocercoses field station of the University of Tübingen, Ngaoundéré, Cameroon


Livestock breeding in West Africa is hampered by ticks and tick-borne diseases and Ivory Coast is not exempted. Several studies have focused on the identification of the tick species of Ivory Coast. However, no study has been carried out at the Port-Bouët cattle market. This market receives livestock from neighbouring countries, some of which are transhumant in northern Ivory Coast. A study was conducted in October 2015 and 2016 in this cattle market. There were 100 cattle, 110 sheep and 102 goats sampled in this cattle market to screen for the tick populations infesting livestock. The direct visual search technique was used to sort-out the prevailing tick species. Species identification was effected using standard keys.

At the livestock market in Port-Bouët, 72 ticks were collected from cattle including 61 (84.7%) of adult ticks represented by six species and two subspecies and nymphs [11 (15.3%)]. In sheep, 155 ticks including adults [138 (89.03%)] divided into six species and two subspecies of ticks, nymphs [12 (7.74%)] and larvae [5 (3.22%)] were collected. In goats, 191 ticks were collected with adults [169 (88.48%)] divided into two species, larvae [21 (12.43%)] and nymph [1 (0.52 %)]. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens, some of which are zoonotic could be a major impediment to livestock development and constitute a public health problem. This study therefore presents baseline information for the surveillance and management of ticks and tick-borne diseases.

Keywords: disease, livestock, parasites


Ticks are considered as ectoparasites with the greatest impact on livestock production worldwide (FAO 2010). Jorgensen et al (1992) linked the importance of ticks to their ability to transmit a broad spectrum of pathogenic organisms such as protozoa, rickettsiae, spirochetes and viruses. Although tick-borne diseases are a global problem, they are more numerous and have a greater impact on livestock in the tropics and subtropics. The main tick-borne diseases in tropical and subtropical cattle are babesiosis, anaplasmosis, theileriosis and cowdriosis (Komoin-Oka et al 2004, Rhalem and Sahibi 2007). All these diseases are economically important, causing not only serious losses every year, affecting milk and meat production, inducing abortions and often causing mortality, but also results in considerable costs due to control measures (Teglas et al 2005, Bouhous et al 2011).

Tick infestation also causes physical damage from bites that are prone to myiasis. Sores resulting from tick-bites are pathways for secondary infection with bacteria and fungi as well as screw-worms (FAO 2010). In an animal undergoing significant infestation, weight loss can reach 15 to 20 kg. In the tropics, stunting and mortalities of up to 6.12% have been reported in non-weaned lambs and 20% in weaned lambs (Farougou et al 2007). As a result, they hinder the development and productivity of livestock in several regions of the world, particularly in African countries. Ivory Coast, a West African coastal country, does not have a strong pastoral tradition, but it does not escape from this reality. Parasitism by ticks and haemoparasites is a major constraint to livestock development, which, despite the efforts of the state for several decades to meet up with the national meat production deficiency (Yapi 2007), the impact of ticks on livestock still remains and drastically reduces productivity. Ivory Coast therefore depends on livestock supply from the Sahelo-Sudanian region (Diallo 2007). Also, some breeders in countries such as Burkina-Faso and Mali bring their herds to Ivory Coast specifically to the livestock market in Port-Bouët to sell them (Keita 2007). Several studies on the main ticks encountered on cattle have been carried out in Ivory Coast; however, knowledge on the species diversity of ticks in the cattle market in Port-Bouët is still unknown. An inventory was conducted in this market to identify the tick species infesting ruminants.

Materials and methods

Study area

The cattle market is located in the municipality of Port-Bouët in Abidjan (Figure 1). The climate of the city of Abidjan is a sub-equatorial type, hot and humid, characterized by two rainy seasons (September to October and April to July) interspersed by two dry seasons (July to August and November to March). The temperature oscillates between 25 and 33 ° C with a heavy rainfall of more than 1500 mm of rain per year. In recent years, there has been a disturbance in the rain patterns and consequently seasons, following the global warming of the earth (Anonymous 2005). This market is the source of livestock meat supply in the district of Abidjan, it has a surface area of 3.2 hectares and common livestock of this market consist of cattle, sheep and goats.

Figure 1. Location of the study site
Animal sampling

Most of the animals brought to the cattle market of Port-Bouët originated from different neighbouring countries, mainly Burkina Faso and Mali. Also, some other groups originate from Niger, Chad and Liberia. For cattle, the breeds encountered were zebu and metis and were considered in the study. Sheep belonged to the species Ovis aries (Linneaus 1758). The sheep seen were of the following local breeds: Sahelian, Djalonke, and Metis. Goats encountered were Capra hircus (Linnaeus 1758).The study was carried out on local goat breeds: Sahelian, Djalonke, Poulinke, Metis and Tolobe. Sheep encountered were stratified into-lamb, young and adult and goats into: kids, hoggets and adults. All encountered ruminant species of both sexes were randomly sampled. In goats, 102 individuals were selected from seven pens averaging 14 heads per pen; while in sheep, 110 individuals were selected from five pens averaging 20 heads per pen. For cattle, the choice was made on cattle over one year old in 20 herds with an average of five cattle per herd.

Tick collection

The collection of ticks on cattle was carried out on all the anatomical parts of the restrained animals. Tick collection was carried out using the method described by Parola and Raoult (2001). The mouthparts of the tick pressed into the skin of the animal were held with forceps and the tick pulled in the axis to prevent the rostrum from being damaged or remaining in the skin of the animal. They were put into well labeled collection tubes containing 70 % ethyl alcohol. Ten (10) minutes was allocated per animal for tick examination. For each animal thoroughly searched, all the ticks were collected into tubes bearing information on the animal's code, date of collection and place of collection. In addition to this information, a survey form was sent to the owners to know the origin of the animals examined (country, region, locality), as well as other information such as the different treatments used against ectoparasites etc. Tick specimens were sent to the laboratory for species identification.

Laboratory examination of ticks

The ticks of each collection tube were first sorted to separate the larvae, nymphs and adults. A second sorting enabled classification according to the different genera, species and subspecies. A count of individuals from each developmental stage was made. The analysis continued with the identification of adult stages using a 10X and 20X magnification of a dissecting microscope by referring to the identification keys of Walker et al (2003) and Meddour-Boudera and Meddour (2006). Identification of the genera was based on the morphological traits of certain parts of the tick’s body (rostrum, eyes, festons). Species identification was based on certain morphological criteria (punctuation of the scutum, coloring of the legs, shape of the stigmas, characteristics of the furrows, festons, eyes and dentition).

Data analysis

Data analysis was done using the XLSTAT software of version 2016. The abundance (A) of each species was calculated using the following formula:

The principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to compare the association of the observed tick species with ruminant species.


Tick species collected from cattle

Of the 72 ticks collected, 61 (84.7%) were adults and nymphs [11 (15.3%)]. No larvae were collected from the cattle examined. These ticks belonged to three genera and were represented by six species and two subspecies. The genus Amblyomma was represented by one species:Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius 1794. The genus Rhipicephalus was represented by two species Rhipicephalus lunutatus Neumann 1907 and Rhipicephalus guilhoni Morel and Vassiliades 1963. The subgenus Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) was represented by a single species: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini 1888. The genus Hyalomma was represented by four species: Hyalomma truncatum Koch 1844, Hyalomma impressum Koch 1844 and two subspecies of Hyalomma marginatum: Hyalomma marginatum marginatum Koch 1844, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes Koch 1844 and Hyalomma impeltatum Schulze and Schlottke 1930. In terms of the abundance of adult ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus was the most dorminant (70.8%). Other tick species were poorly represented with less than 5% of the total number of ticks collected. The nymphs of Rhipicephalus Boophilus sp occupied 15.3% of the total number of tick collected (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Species of ticks collected from cattle
Tick species collected from sheep

Of the 101 sheep examined, 155 ticks including adults [138 (89.03%)], nymphs [12 (7.74%)] and larvae [5 (3.22%)] were collected. Six species and two sub species of ticks belonging to three genera were identified. The genus Amblyomma was represented by a single species Amblyomma variegatum, whose proportion in the population of ticks collected was 0.65%. Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the dominant species consisting of 63.87% of the tick population collected. Three species of the subgenus Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) were identified Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (9.03%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (8.39%) and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) geigyi (1.94%). Hyalomma spp found on sheep was Hyalomma impeltatum with two subspecies of Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma marginatum marginatum and Hyalomma marginatum rufipes with relatively low proportions: 2.58%, 1.94% and 0.65% respectively (Table 1).

Tick ​​species collected from goats

Of the 101 goats examined, 191 ticks were collected with adults (169), larvae (21) and nymph (1). Two tick species belonging to two genera (Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma) were collected:Rhipicephalus sanguineus (which was the most dominant species) and Hyalomma impeltatum with 76.96% and 11.52% respectively of the total number of ticks collected (Table 1). No species of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) was identified on goats.

Table 1. Percentage composition of tick species collected from goats and sheep

Goat, n (%)

Sheep, n(%)

Amblyomma variegatum


1 (0.65)

Hyalomma impeltatum

22 (11.52)

4 (2.58)

Hyalomma marginatum marginatum


3 (1.94)

Hyalomma marginatum rufipes


1 (0.65)

Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus


14 (9.03)

Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) geigyi


3 (1.94)

Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus


13 (8.39)

Rhipicephalus sangineus

147 (76.96)

99 (63.87)

Rhipicephalus spp (nymphs)

1 (0.52)

12 (7.74)


21 (10.99)

5 (3.23)




Association of ruminants with tick species

From the PCA, axes 1 and 2 with 84.67% and 15.33% contribution represent 100% of the independence gap. The relationship between tick species and ruminant breeds is illustrated in Figure 3. Rows represent the species of ticks encountered and columns represent ruminants (bovine, goat and sheep). The association between the modalities of these entities is statistically significant (Chi2 = 312.28, degree of freedom = 22, P <0.01). Cattle represented on the graph (cos2 = 0.99), strongly contributed to the construction of the first axis (80.7%). The latter is characterized by five species of ticks (Rhipicephalus guilhoni,Rhipicephalus lunutatus, Amblyomma variegatum,Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus).Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) geigyi) were more associated with sheep. Hyalomma impeltatum which was rarely seen in cattle was most noticeable in goats.

Figure 3. Association of ruminants (cattle, goat and sheep) with tick species


Three types of ticks were identified in the study area. The genus Rhipicephalus was the predominant followed by Hyalomma and Amblyomma. These three types of ticks infesting livestock have also been identified in Ivory Coast by Touré et al (2014). Rhipicephalus is mostly found in wet areas. This type of tick is widespread in southern Sudan and Guinean West Africa (Morel 1969). It has been found in Burkina Faso (Ouédraogo 1975) and Senegal (Niang 1998; Bitar 1998), in Ivory Coast (Keita 2007) on cattle. The genus Hyalomma is a tick of the sub-desert zone and it is responsible for the transmission of theleiriose in cattle (Mans et al 2015; El Haj et al 2002). Hyalomma sp. lives in warm, arid and semi-arid biotopes, generally low-plains at mid-altitude and those with long and dry seasons (Merck 2008).The genus Amblyomma is a subspecies linked to ruminants in West Africa. These observations were made by Madder et al (2012) and Adakal (2013).

Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus was the most dorminant species in the study site. After its discovery by Madder et al (2007) in Ivory Coast in the south-eastern Azaguié region of this country, this species has proliferated and is found in all compartments of the study area. This is because this species has a high invasion capacity because it competes with indigenous species including Amblyomma variegatum. Also, it progressively replaced R. (B.) annulatus, R. (B.) decoloratus and R. (B.) geigyi. These observations were made by Madder et al (2011) and Touré et al (2012 and 2014). These authors reported that Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus had a high invasion capacity. The subgenus Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) collected from cattle and sheep has not yet been recovered from goats. Indeed, the work of Laamri et al (2012) and Gueye et al (1987) on goats did not report the existence of this subgenus as ticks of goats. Several studies in West Africa on Amblyomma variegatum have shown the predominance of this species and the importance of cowdriosis in the sub-region (Kaboré et al 1998, Koney et al 1994, Farougou et al 2006). However, in Ivory Coast since the advent of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Amblyomma variegatum is no longer the dominant tick in the northern regions. Relative numbers of tick species such as Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma marginatum marginatum and Hyalomma impressum are low. These ticks usually live on livestock and are distributed between the heights of 100 and 1000 mm according to Camicas et al (1998) and Walker et al (2003). These tick species live in dry areas. This may explain their small numbers in these areas below the height of 1000 mm.

On goats as well as sheep, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (71.09%) was dominant. The abundance of this species can be explained by the promiscuous behavior of its small ruminant vertebrate hosts with stray or guard dogs (Fahmy et al 1981). R. sanguineus is the dog's main tick. The overall small ruminant infestation rate (54.45%) was much higher than that observed by Chabi-Touri (1999) and Tassou (2009) who recorded 36.79% for this species in the Alibori division in Benin. The tick infestation rates of 55.45% and 51.49% in goats and sheep respectively was higher than those of Salifou et al (2004) which were 25.12% and 10.31% for sheep and goats respectively in South Benin. This high infestation rate in the livestock market could be explained by the low number of animals sampled (101 goats and 101 sheep were examined in this study against 987 goats 417 goats in previous studies) (Tassou 2009). Small ruminants examined at the cattle market were much more infested than cattle. Also, the work carried out by Aké-Bogni (2014) on cattle showed that ticks collected along the transhumance corridor were more numerous than those collected in the Port-Bouët cattle market. This could be explained by the problems encountered in harvesting ticks on cattle in the cattle market environment. The difficulties were related to the lack of helping hands to restrain the cattle for tick collection. Also, the cattle sent to the livestock market were intended either for sale or for the renewal of the herd. These cattle were therefore selected and only cattle with good physical health were retained. They were also treated with acaricides to rid them of ticks in order to improve their economic value.



Adakal H 2013 Cours Régional CIRDES/UEMOA: lutte contre les tiques et les maladies qu’elles transmettent au bétail, CIRDES, 58.

Aké-Bogni G R 2014 Techniques de collecte et d’inventaire des ectoparasites des ovins, des lapins et des cailles. Mémoire de Master 1, Université Felix Houphouët Abidjan Côte d’Ivoire, 25.

Anonymous 1995 La theilériose bovine à Theileria annulata, Ministère de la Coopération et du Développement Santé animale fiche technique, 1, 35.

Achi YL, Koné P, Stachurski F et Betschart B 2011 Impact des tiques sur des bovins métis dans le nord de la Côte d’Ivoire, Experimental and Applied Acarology, 53 (2), 139-145.

Azokou A, Achi Y L et Koné M W 2016 Lutte contre les tiques du bétail en Côte d’Ivoire par des méthodes traditionnelles, livestock research for rural developpement, 28 (52).

Bouhous A, Aissi M et Harhoura K 2011 Prevalence of Ixodidae in sheep brought for slaughter in Adrar municipal abattoir, Southwest Algeria, Scientia Parasitologica, 12(4), 197-201.

Bitar I 1998 Contribution á la lutte contre les ectoparasites du mouton au Sénégal : utilisation de la doramectine (Dectomax), Thèse d’état, Université Chekh Anta-Diop, Dakar, Sénégal, 117.

Boka O M, Madder M, Achi Y L, Kaboret Y Y and Berkvens D 2014 Modélisation du remplacement de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus par Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, une tique émergente en Côte d’Ivoire. European Scientific Journal, 10 (30), 120-132.

Camicas J L, Hervy J P, Adam F et Morel P C 1998 Les tiques du monde: Nomenclature, Stades décrits, hôtes, répartition. Paris : Edition ORSTOM, 240.

Communication-Pays 2014 L’agriculture Intelligente face au Climat en Côte d’Ivoire : état des lieux et besoins d’appui pour mieux intégrer l’Agriculture Intelligente face au Climat (AIC) dans le Programme National d’Investissement Agricole (PNIA), 15.

Djakaridja B, Yao K P, Gragnon G B, Acapovi-Yao G, Mavoungou J F and N’Goran K E 2014 Situation épidémiologique des hémoparasites des bovins dans deux zones d’élevage de la Cote d’Ivoire : cas des anciennes régions des Savanes et de la vallée du Bandama, Revue Médecine Vétérinaire, 165 (9-10), 297-303.

Diallo Y 2007 Les Peuls, les Senoufo et l’Etat au nord de la Côte d’Ivoire. Problèmes fonciers et gestion du pastoralisme. Bulletin de l’APAD, 11.

El Haj, Kachani M, Bouslikhane M, Ouhelli H, Ahami A T, Katende J and Morzaria S P 2002 Séro- épidémiologie de la theilériose àTheileria annulata et de la babésiose à Babesia bigemina au Maroc, Revue Médecine Vétérinaire, 153 (3) : 189-196.

Fahmy M A M, Arafa M S, Mandour A M et Sema A A A 1981 Survey of hard tick (Ixodidae) infesting domestic animals in Assuit Governorate, Upper Egypt. Acta parasitologica, Polonica XXVIII, 9, 91-96.

FAO 2010 Allocution de Madame le représentant de la FAO à l’occasion de la signature du projet ORSO/ICV/3301- Appuis à la mise en œuvre d’un programme d’urgence pour la prévention et la lutte des maladies à tiques du bétail dans le nord de la Côte d’Ivoire, 9.

Farougou S, Kpodekon M, Adakal H, Sagbo R and Boko C 2007 Seasonal abundance of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting sheep in the southern area of Benin. Revue de Medécine Vétérinaire , 158, 627–632.

Guinat C 2012 La tique dure Amblyomma variegatum (Acari, Ixodidae) à Madagascar : détermination de seuils de température pour la métamorphose de la nymphe gorgée en adulte. Thèse de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université Paul-Sabatier de Toulouse, France, 85.

Jorgensen W K, Weilgama D J, Navaratne M et Dalgliesh R J 1992 Prevalence of Babesia bovis and Anaplasma marginal at selected localities in Sri Lanka. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 24, 9-14.

Kéita K 2007 Les Tiques parasites des ovins dans les élevages des régions du centre et du sud de la Côte d’Ivoire. Thèse; médecine Vétérinaire. Dakar, 157.

Komoin-Oka C, Knopf L, N'Depo A et Zinsstag J 2004 Le parasitisme sanguin des bovins de la zone centre de savane humide de la Côte d’Ivoire, Sempervira, 11 : 60-63.

Laamri M, El Kharrim K, Mrifag R, Boukbal M and Belghyti D 2012 Parasitisme des caprins par les tiques (Ixodidae) dans la région du Gharb-Chrarda-Beni Hssen (Maroc), Sciences Lib,120606, 4.

Labruna M B, Naranjo V, Mangold A J, Estrada-Peña C T A, Guglielmone A A, Jongejan F and De la Fuente J 2009 Allopatric speciation in ticks: genetic and reproductive divergence between geographic strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus , Biomedical Evolutionary Biology, 9 (46), 12.

Madder M, Adehan S, De Deken R, Adehan R and Lokossou R 2012 New foci of Rhipicephalus microplus in West Africa, Experimental and Applied Acarology 56:385–390.

Madder M, Thys E, Achi L, Toure A and De Deken R 2011 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus : a most successful invasive tick species in West- Africa. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 53, 2, 139-145.

Mans B J, Pienaar R et Latif A A 2015 A review of Theileria diagnostics and epidemiology International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, p 105-118.

Meddour-Boudera et Meddour 2006 Clés d’identification des Ixodina (Acarina) d’Algérie. Sciences et Technologies, 4, 32-42.

Morel P C, Chartier C, Itard J et Troncy M 2000 Précis de Parasitologie Vétérinaire tropicale . Editions Tec et doc/EM Inter, Paris, 200.

Morel P C 1969 Contribution à la connaissance de la distribution des tiques (Acariens, Ixodidae et Amblyommidae) en Afrique éthiopienne continentale, Thèse Doctorat en Sciences. Orsay, France, 388.

Mulumba J B K, Somda J, Yacouba S et Hamade K 2008 Élevage et marché régional au Sahel et en Afrique de l’Ouest Potentialités et défi, CSAO/OCDE, 182.

Niang I 1998 Contribution à la lutte contre les tiques des bovins au Sénégal: utilisation de la Doramectine (DECTOMAX ND). Thèse de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université Cheikh Anta-Diop, Dakar, Sénégal, 103.

Ouédraogo A M 1975 Les tiques des animaux domestiques de Haute Volta. Thèse de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université Cheikh Anta-Diop, Dakar, Sénégal, 131.

OIE 2005 Anaplasmose, Manuel terrestre de l’OIE, Chapitre 2.3.5, 550-563.

Parola P et Raoult D 2001 Ticks and tickborne bacterial diseases in humans: an emerging infectious threat. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 15, 32 (6), 897-928.

Petney T N, Horak I G et Rechav Y 1987 The ecology of the african vectors of heartwater, with particular reference to Amblyomma hebraeum and Amblyomma variegatum. Onderstepoort Journal of veterinary Research, (54), 381-395.

Rhalem A et Sahibi H 2007 Tiques et maladies transmises par les tiques chez les bovins du Maroc, Transfert de technologie en agriculture, 151, 4.

Salifou S, Hessa C C et Pangui L J 2004 Enquête préliminaire sur les acariens et insectes parasites des petits ruminants dans la région de l’Atlantique et de littoral (Sud Bénin). Revue Médecine Vétérinaire, 155 (6), 343- 346.

Stachurski F, Zoungrana S et Konkobo M 2010 Moulting and survival of Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs in quasi-natural conditions in Burkina Faso; tick predators as an important limiting factor. Experimental and Applied Acarology 52 (4), 363–376.

Sylla M 2012 Contribution à l’étude des tiques dans le Sud-Est de la Mauritanie. Thèse de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université Cheikh Anta-Diop, Dakar, Sénégal, 104.

Tassou A W 2009 Infestation des ruminants domestiques par les acariens et insectes dans le nord-Bénin : impact et connaissance paysanne de lutte. Thèse : Médecine. Vétérinaire Dakar ; 117 p.

Teglas M, Matern E, Lein S, Foley F, Mahan S M and Foley J 2005 Ticks and tick-borne disease in Guatemalan cattle and horses. Veterinary Parasitology, 131 : 119-127.

Touré A, Diaha C A, Sylla I et Kouakou K 2014 Récente recomposition des populations de tiques prévalentes en Côte d’Ivoire. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 8: 566-578.

Toure A, Komoin-Oka C et Sylla I 2012 Cattle ticks population and prevalence of Babesia spp amongst its vector: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in a zone of Côte d’Ivoire. International Journal of Biology and Chemical Sciences, 6 (4), 1574-1581.

Walker A R, Bouatour A, Camicas J L, Estrada-Pena A, Horak I G, Latif A A, Pegram R G and Preston P M 2003 Ticks of Domestic Animals in Africa: a guide to Identification of Species, Bioscience Reports, 221 .

Yapi A D W 2007 Contribution à l’étude des tiques parasites des bovins en Côte d’Ivoire: cas de quatre troupeaux de la zone sud. Université Cheikh Anta-Diop, Dakar, Sénégal, 109.

Received 9 March 2018; Accepted 14 May 2018; Published 1 June 2018

Go to top