Livestock Research for Rural Development 20 (3) 2008 Guide for preparation of papers LRRD News

Citation of this paper

Integration of crop-livestock-poultry-duck farming system by large farmers in the Plain tribal areas of Chhattisgarh in Central India

W Y Ramrao, S P Tiwari, S Sharma Saraswat, R Pathak and R Gupta

College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anjora, Durg (Chhattisgarh) 491001- India


Investigations were carried out in Durg district to find out a sustainable mixed farming model which is economically viable integrating the different component like crop, livestock, poultry and duck on 7.5 acre land holding. Different viable modules Viz. (T1) arable, (T2) crop + 4 bullocks + 4 cow, (T3) crop + 4 bullocks + 4 buffaloes, (T4) crop + 4 bullocks + 2 cow + 2 buffaloes, (T5) crop + 2 bullocks + 2 cow + 2 buffaloes + 25 goats and (T6) crop + 4 bullocks + 2 cow + 2 buffaloes + 25 goats + 30 poultry + 30 ducks were developed to find out the best package on the land holding of 7.5 acre suitable for the tribal region.


A model having 4 bullocks + 2 cow + 2 buffaloes + 25 goats + 30 poultry + 30 ducks along with crop cultivation was the best with a net income of Rs 106,367 per year against arable farming (crop farming) alone (48,255 per year) with a cost returns of 1: 2.008 and employment generation of 1,226 days.

Key words:  Cost returns, employment, land holding, mixed farming, module


Chhattisgarh is a tribal state of India. It is located between 17046’ to 2406’ N and 80015’ to 84051’ E. The state has diversified agro climatic zones viz. plains, plateau and hills. Types of natural vegetation, crops and resources available with the tribal varied to a great extent. Similarly, size and population of livestock inhabited in the different agro climatic zones also varied largely.


This study was conducted in the Chhattisgarh Plains having average rainfall of 1024 mm. The staple food of tribal are mainly rice (Oryza sativa), rice byproducts, corn (Zea mays) grains, Wheat (Triticum aestivum) sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), kodo millet (Paspalun scrobiculatum) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana) produced during monsoon (June to August). Oil cakes like Mustard (Brassica campestris), Sunflower (Helianthus sp.) and pulses like Lakhdi (Lathyrus sp.) and Soybean (Glycine max.) are the feed ingredients mainly included in the ration of livestock. Rice straw, pulse straw and locally available green grasses served as the source of roughage for livestock feeding. Farmers did not supplement vitamins and minerals in the diet of livestock. Animals are small sized and low producer (2 to 3 kg milk), bullocks are used for draft purpose and dung as a source of fuel for cooking their meals and manure to fertilize soil. The average family size is 6. Besides crop farming which is mainly for 4 months in a year, tribal are survived with livestock-poultry-duck-fish or with their subsidiary occupations (basket making, bee keeping etc.). The farming being followed by the tribal is very unscientific and income generated through such farming is hardly sufficient to meet out their livelihood because they leave their land as such without cultivation due to want of good quality seeds, fertilizers, manure and proper irrigation facilities. However, by using the existing resources the farming system can be made viable, sustainable and income generating with great opportunities of employment potential. Different modules have been structured to utilize and recycle the available resources to level out socio-economic status of large farmers. 


Chhattisgarh state is mainly a mono-cropped state with rice (Oryza Sativa) being the main crop cultivated in 3/5th of total area during Kharif season. More than 80 per cent of the population is dependent upon agriculture for its livelihood. Due to mono-crop cultivation, this portion of the population remained unemployed during eight months of the year. Because of limited irrigation facility, it makes the farmers vulnerable to drought, which threatens the harvest of paddy.


The concept of man - land - livestock ecosystem is gaining momentum to maximize food production and to alleviate economic status of the farmers by multifarious farm activities particularly by incorporating livestock enterprises.


For human need, the livestock provides food, fiber, skin, traction, fertilizer and fuel. Livestock also constitutes ”living bank” providing flexible financial reserve in times of emergency and serve as “insurance” against crop failure for survival.


Farmers keep cows, buffaloes, sheep and goats including small numbers of poultry in backyard to meet their domestic needs. Therefore, livestock became an integral part of farming system as such. Other agricultural components like horticulture, plantation, vegetables, sericulture, and agro-forestry are also prevalent in the homesteads. These units are operated either alone or in combination depending upon the size of the farm holdings and other available resources.


In this system, animals are raised on agricultural waste. The animal power is used for agricultural operation and the dung is used as manure and fuel. It may be possible to reach the some level of yield with proportionately less input in the integrated farming and the yield would be inherently more sustainable because the waste of one enterprise becomes the input of another leaving almost no waste to pollute the environment or to degrade the resource base. To put this concept into practice efficiently, it is necessary to study linkage and complementary of different enterprises will help to develop integrated farming system in which the waste of one enterprise is more efficiently used as input to another within the system. 


Materials and methods 

The present study was conducted in Chhattisgarh plains of Durg district comprising 12 blocks. Three villages were randomly selected from each block. In this way, 36 villages were randomly selected from each block. Average farm size holding for large farmer in Durg district is about 7.5 acre. Therefore, the same fragmented area of land (7.5 acre) was chosen for large farmers. A family size of 5 members parallel and identical to that of Durg tribal has been considered in this model. To ascertain the best model suitable to 7.5 acre farm size holding a set of 6 combinations with crop (grains, fodder) livestock (cow, buffalo, bullock, goat poultry and duck) farming’s were considered. The crop farming consisted of grains and fodder cultivation in Monsoon (June to August) i.e. Kharif and winter (October to November) i.e. Rabi season under rain fed condition.

Study methodology


Information was collected by personal interviews, the details regarding land holdings, size and kind of livestock, family labour size, expenditure for crop farming and livestock enterprise and annual income from agriculture and from livestock was gathered from the randomly selected respondents.


To calculate the net margin, various cost concepts used for the livestock and crop farming were as follows.

Livestock farming:  Paid out expenses like feed cost, hired labour, medicines, computed value of family labour and miscellaneous recurring expenses.

Crop farming: Paid out expenses like hired human labour, bullock labour, tractor hour, and cost of seed, manure, and fertilizer and computed value of family labour.


The modularly treatments formed under large farmers having 7.5 acre land holding are T1 crop alone (in 7.5 Acre), T2  crop + 4 bullocks + 4 cows, T3 crop + 4 bullocks + 4 buffaloes, T4 crop + 4 bullocks + 2 cows + 2 buffaloes, T5 crop + 2 bullocks + 2 cows +2 buffaloes + 25 goats and T6  crop + 4 bullocks + 2 cows + 2 buffaloes + 25 goats +30 poultry + 30 ducks.

The numbers of livestock including poultry and ducks have not been put to different modules as per the existing practices of farmers, rather they were put on the basis, required to make the mixed farming module viable to achieve the maximum returns. Livestock comprised of cows, buffaloes, bullocks and goats besides poultry and ducks. The livestock and poultry birds included in the present study were local and desi type. 


Results and discussion 

The results of this study indicated that integration of various enterprises on 7.5 acre size of land holding were viable. Further, better utilization of land, water, input and output resources have been observed in the mixed farming model with bullocks, cows, buffaloes and goats as compared to arable (crop) farming alone. An attempt was made to prepare a schematic model representing the various combinations of the mixed farming system based on the present study (Figure 1).

T1 (Crop), T2 (Crop + 4 Bullocks + 4 Cows), T3 (Crop + 4 Bullocks + 4 Buffaloes), T4 (Crop + 4 Bullocks + 2 Cows + 2 Buffaloes), T5 (Crop + 2 Bullocks + 2 Cows + 2 Buffaloes + 25 Goats), T6 (Crop + 2 Bullocks + 2 Cows + 2 Buffaloes + 25 Goats + 30 Poultry + 30 Ducks)

Figure 1.
 Income and expenditure in different mixed farming models for Large Farmer

Mixed farming of 4 bullocks + 2 cow + 2 buffaloes + 25 goats + 30 poultry + 30 ducks gave a net return of Rs 106,367 compared to Rs 48,255 from arable farming (Table 1- 3).

Table 1.  Income and expenditure due to Crop Farming (Mean ± SE)







Gross Income,


Net Income,

Cost : return ratio

Employment, days


Rice (Swarna)(Oryza sativa)


6092  ± 42.75

9965  ± 24.78

3873  ± 51.25

1.63  ± 0.012

80 ± 0.74


Wheat (Sujata)(Triticum estivum)


4300  ± 45.11

6863  ± 13.41

2563  ± 46.03

1.59  ± 0.017

41 ± 0.65


Lakhdi (Lathyrus sp.)


2172  ± 34.97

3528  ± 31.52

1356  ± 44.43

1.62  ± 0.02

30 ± 0.50

Table 2.  Income and expenditure due to Livestock Farming (Mean ± SE)











No. of Animal









Expenditure, Rs

2153 ±10.96



1953 ±8.53





Gross Income, Rs

5354 ±10.74








Net Income, Rs









Cost return: ratio









Employment, day








Table 3.  Income and expenditure in different mixed farming models (Mean ±SE)





Gross Income,


Net Income,


Cost:return ratio

Employment days


Crop (7.5 Acre)

77940a ±421



1.67 a±0.0087

907 a±9.40


Crop + 4 Bullocks + 4Cows


162635 b±253

67340b ±451

1.70 b±0.0075



Crop + 4 Bullocks + 4 Buffaloes

96366 b ±435

180012 c±261

83645c ±457

1.88 c±0.0082

1158 b±7.67


Crop + 4 Bullocks + 2 Cows + 2 Buffaloes




1.78 d±0.0078

1158 b±7.90


Crop+2 Bullocks + 2 Cows +2 Buffaloes + 25 Goats


196052 e±262


1.94 e±0.0080

1202 c±7.31


Crop + 4 Bullocks + 2 Cows + 2 Buffaloes

+ 25 Goats +30 Poultry + 30 Ducks


211894 f±275


2.00 f±0.007


Values with different superscript in the same column differ from each other significantly (P<0.01)

Singh (1994) reported that 1hactare canal irrigated land gave net return ranging from Rs 14,000 to Rs 32,700 in different years in mixed farming with 3 cross bred cows. Where as, it was observed to be ranging from negative to Rs 19,700 in mixed farming with 3 buffaloes. Comparative figures for arable farming were between Rs 3,300 and Rs 12,400 (Singh 1994).


Madhava Swamy (1985) observed that the net returns were higher by Rs 620, 5198 and 1598 in diversified farms of farming, poultry and sheep rearing, respectively over the crop enterprise farm in Karnool district of Andhra Pradesh. Singh et al (1994) compared three types of farming system and found that the mixed farming with 3 cross bred cows gave the highest net return of about Rs 21,000 and also generated highest man-day of employment.


Agriculture is still considered to be the major sector providing employment in India (Singh et al 1994). However, the small and marginal farmer families and agricultural laborers have to face employment and under employment due to seasonal work in crop production (Swaminathan 1981) and also due to the natural calamities occurring at one or the other seasons of the year. In this study too, the mixed farming system suggested better means for providing regular employment to these sections of rural mass in tribal area. The study revealed that employment potential of mixed farming system was higher than arable farming. In a mixed farming system of 7.5 acre land, the employment generation was 571 man days with almost uniform distribution throughout the year compared to 1,226 man days in arable farming with more labour employment only during July-August period of agriculture operations.


The conservation of ecosystem and recycling of energy and mineral matter in soil-plant-animal/human- atmosphere have been followed (Singh 1994). The recycling of precious organic manurial wastes (energy/mineral matter) might have been responsible for conserving ecosystem and thus increasing the fertility of soil and keeping the environment free from pollution hazards. In view of the pressure of population on land there is no alternative to meet the demand for food and other agricultural raw materials except through increase in agriculture- animal production per unit land per unit time on one hand and concern of humanity regarding pollution and environment on other.


Good amount of feed for animals was also available from the system itself. The farmyard manure available from the animal was used for manuring of crops and 30-35% savings in fertilizer use could be affected in mixed farming system.




Madhava Swamy G  1985  Effect of diversified farming on income and employment. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics 40(3): 333


Singh K P 1994  Integrated Farming System – Concept and Scope, Symposium of Resource Management and Crop Productivity. February 16-18 at the CCSHAU, Hissar. Pp.69-85


Singh K P, Kadian V S, Kumar H, Singh S N, Saxena K K  and Kumar V  1994  Abstract Proceeding. National symposium on ‘Resource Management and Crop Productivity’   CCSHAU, Hissar, India. Pp.93


Swaminathan M S 1981 Indian agriculture – Challenges for the Eighties, Agriculture Situation of India. 36(6): 349-358

Received 5 December 2007; Accepted 20 December 2007; Published 1 March 2008

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