Livestock Research for Rural Development 20 (3) 2008 Guide for preparation of papers LRRD News

Citation of this paper

Effect of palm wine yeasts and yogurt probiotics on the growth performance of broilers

G L Bohoua

Département des Sciences et Technologies des Aliments Université d’Abobo-Adjamé
02 BP 801 Abidjan 02, Côte d’Ivoire (West Africa)


The effect of Palm wine yeasts and yogurt probiotics was studied on done one hundred and forty (140) Red Island chicks. The gained bodyweight and feeding efficiency index were calculated were taken as performance parameters. To conduct this experiment, four batches of 35 chicks were used. The following feeding supplementations were added to the basic feed. The first batch (STA) received the only the basic feeding.  Batches 2 (YEA), 3 (YOG), 4 (YEA + YOG) received respectively 3% palm wine settling, 3% yogurt powder, 1.5% palm wine settling and 1.5% yogurt  powder. Data were collected every week and the performance was measured. 


The best results in terms of body weight and the feeding efficiency index were obtained with batch 3 (YOG). This batch was followed by batch 2 (YEA), batch 4 (YEA + YOG) and batch 1 (STA).  For the ratio used, palm wine yeast and yogurt probiotics combined had a detrimental effect on the weight and the feeding efficiency index.

Keyword: feeding efficiency index, feeding supplementation, micro-organism, poultry


Palm wine is a traditional wine extracted from palm tree Elaeis guineensis. This type of wine is cheap and represents an important part of income in rural areas of Côte d’Ivoire (West Africa). Unfortunately this wine produced is not stable: the fermentation process continues until the quality becomes unacceptable. Everyday huge quantities are poured away. Palm wine is consumed for its nutritional effect because of its probiotic content (Ezeronye 2004; Lourens-Hattingh and Wiljoen 2001; Heller 2001).The settling of this wine is rich in probiotic bacteria and yeasts and could be utilized as a probiotic adjunct in poultry (Ehrmann et al 2002). The collection of this fermented wine is free. Another probiotic carrier commonly used  is yogurt. It confers a health benefit on the host (Guarner et al 2005). Taking in account the importance of probiotics, our study objective is to study  the single and combined effects of these two types of probiotic carrier feeds on the performance of broilers. As  feeding supplementations, their may significantly reduce the breeding cost of poultry.  


Materials and methods   

Biological and chemical material


The experiment was conducted one hundred and forty (140) Red Island chicks obtained from ALCI (Yopougon, Abidjan). At day one, their average weight was 45.67 g.  Palm wine was purchased from the main market in the district of Abobo. Strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus were purchased from Rolls poulen.Yogurt was manufactured in the nutritional Laboratory of the Food Sciences department of the University of Abobo-Adjamé. Vitamins and minerals used in our experiment were purchased from PROVETO enterprise  in  Riviera 2 (Abidjan).




Culture of yeast


The culture of palm wine yeasts was conducted as follows. The palm wine collected in laboratory tanks and maintained at 30°C. The fermentation mix was then centrifuged at 1500 rpm for 5 minutes and the settling obtained was vacuum dried at 30°C for 48 hours. The dry powder product containing yeasts was then fine grinded. This final powder was used as a supplement and incorporated at a ratio of the selected ratio in the poultry feedings. 


Manufacturing of yogurt 


Milk powder was dispersed into water at 43°C. The solid content was 12%.  The mix was then homogenized and pasteurized at 73°C for 30 minutes. The milk was cooled at 43°C for fermentation. A mixed strain of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus was added to the milk at a ratio of 3 %. The fermentation temperature was set at 43°C for 8 hours. The yogurt was then freeze dried. The yogurt mix was then grinded in fine powder. The yogurt powder obtained was finally used as a supplement and incorporated at a given ratio in the poultry feeding.




The experiment was conducted simultaneously into two buildings (A and B). In each building there were 4 batches of 35 chicks which receive the following feeding formulations:

Batch1 (STA): Basic formulation

Batch 2 (YEA): Basic formulation + (3%) palm wine 

Batch 3 (YOG): Basic formulation + (3%) yogurt

Batch 4 (YEA+YOG): Basic formulation + (1.5%) palm wine +(1.5%) yogurt 


During our experiment, chicks have been fed with two types of feeding formulations. For the first three weeks, chicks were fed with the basic formulation I (starter feeding). This formulation is rich in carbohydrates, proteins and micro-nutriments.  From week 4 up to week 8, chicks were on the second formulation II (growth feeding). During the entire experimental period, different supplementations (palm wine, yogurt, mixed palm wine and yogurt) were added to the basic formulations.

Determination of the chicks average weight


The chicks weights were taken once a week. The average weight for each batch was calculated.


Determination of the feeding efficiency index


The feeding efficiency index (FEI) is the value represented by the ratio of the average quantity of the feedings consumed on the average weight of the individuals. It does not have a unit and is determined as follows:


QM = average quantity of consumed feed

FM = average weight of chicks


Statistical analysis


The statistical analysis was carried out using a “Statistica Data Management” software. The analysis of variance and the means comparison were made to appreciate the significant differences between various batches.


Microbiological Tests: identification of strains and species of yeasts in the palm wine


50 samples of 300 ml each have been taken for analysis. The method of analysis used is the classical bacteriological method, by culture and isolation on solid medium. The pH of each sample has been noted and neutralized if necessary before seeding. The seeding was done on OGA agar (Oxytetracycline Glucose Agar) and on Sabouraud agar + chloramphenicol.  The medium was incubated at 25° C for 72 hours. Thereafter, the aspect of the colonies on different agars was checked. The presumptive colonies of yeasts on OGA and Sabouraud + chloramphenicol appear creamy. Then colonies of yeasts are sub-cultured in OGA broth or Sabouraud, and on OGA agar + TTC (Triphenyl tretrazolium chloride) or Sabouraud + chloramphenicol + TTC for 48 hours at 25°C in order to ease a better development of yeasts to study their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Colonies previously isolated are identified by biochemical characterization, on gallery of identification API 20 C (Auxanogramme Biomérieux) and an automation of reading and interpretation: ATB expression.


Results and discussion   

Chicks in each batch were fed according to the feeding formulation (table 1).

Table 1.  Feeding composition of the basic formulations

Feeding composition

Basic formulation I

 (starter feeding)

Basic formulation II  (growth feeding)

Crude proteins %



Digestible Energy, Kcal



Crude fibers, %



Lysin, %



Methionine, %



Calcium, %



Phosphorus, %:



Vitamin A, UI/Kg



Vitamin D3, UI/Kg



Vitamin E, UI/Kg



Iron, mg/Kg



Zinc, mg/Kg 



Copper, mg/Kg



Their weight was taken every week and weight gained was plotted in figure 1.

(STA): Basic formulation, (YEA): Basic formulation + yeasts of palm wine (3%), (YOG): Basic formulation + yogurt (3%), (YEA+YOG): Basic formulation + yeasts of palm wine (1.5%) +
  yogurt (1.5%) 

Figure 1. 
Effect of feeding supplementations on the average  weight of broilers

The trends of the different curves were ascending and regular. The highest weight gained was obtained with chicks fed with basic formulations supplemented with yogurt (batch 3: YOG). This is mainly due to the beneficial effect of lactic acid producing bacteria or probiotics (Bourgeois and Larpent 1989) such as Streptococcus thermophilus (Cosson and Deschamps 1994; Collins et al 1998; Kimoto et al 2000; Sreekumar and Hosono 2000) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Bezkorovainy et al 1997; Naidu et al 1999). These bacteria either by their enzymes activities, fermentation products or cell components favour the development of a balanced digestive flora (Fooks et al 1999; Sanders and In’t veld 1999), and thus reducing gastro-intestinal infections in poultry (Nava et al 2005).


In a decreasing order of the body weight after the yogurt batch, we have chicks fed with palm wine (batch 2: YEA), the mixed feeding of yogurt and palm wine supplement (batch 4: YEA+YOG). Microbiological identification tests have shown that palm wine (batch 2: YEA) was mainly composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Probiotic yeasts in palm wine (Ezeronye  2004) by their activities increase the amino acids content of the feeding especially lysin, methionine and cystein. These amino acids are essential for the growth of  broilers (Emilina et al 2006). The mineral content of the feed such as calcium and phosphorus and zinc reinforced by yeasts significantly increase the body weight (Coïc and Coppenet 1989).


The batch fed with the mixed culture of yogurt and palm wine (batch 4: YOG + YEA) has a growth lower than batches fed individually these two supplements. Larpent and Larpent-gourgaud in 1990 have shown that yeasts and lactic acids bacteria growth is improved by their symbiotic relation. It has also been suggested by other authors that growth of probiotic yeasts stimulate the growth of probiotic organisms and assure their survival (Lourens-Hattingh and Wiljoen 2001). However, in our study, the association is detrimental. We would expected a better growth due to the presence of these micro-organisms or to the large quantity of metabolites generated. Probiotic bacteria often produced bacteriocin that is one of their beneficial characteristics. (Klaenhammer and Kullen 1999; Fooks and Gibson 2002). It may contribute to the colonisation resistance of the host and its protection against gastrointestinal pathogens (Reid et al 2001; Bourlioux 1997). The produced bacteriocin displays antifungal activity against yeasts in the palm wine. Yeasts having been killed and the quantity of the yogurt supplement being half of the amount used in the case of batch only fed with yogurt, it is not surprising to observe a lower performance.  At last comes the standard batch (batch 1: STA) with the lowest growth. The difference in the weight becomes more significant every week. These results found show the importance or beneficial aspects of the use of probiotic in broilers feeding formulations.


The feeding conversion index was also studied to find out the effect of these different feedings supplementations (figure 2).

(STA): Basic formulation, (YEA): Basic formulation + yeasts of palm wine (3%), (YOG): Basic formulation + yogurt (3%), (YEA+YOG): Basic formulation + yeasts of palm wine (1.5%) + yogurt (1.5%)

Figure 2.  
Effet of feeding supplementations on the feeding efficiency index of broilers

This figure can be divided into two steps: From week 1 to week 3, there was an increase in the feeding conversion index. From week 3 to week 7, the trend was reversed. All the trends obtained from the feeding supplements were uniform throughout the experimental period. The highest values were obtained with the standard batch (STA) followed by the palm wine and the mixed supplementation (YEA+YOG). The lowest values were noted with yogurt supplement (YOG).


As regard to the general trend, we noticed an increase during the first three weeks. During this period, chicks were getting used to the feed and the metabolic systems were being settled. After the first week the trend was reversed, the effect of the feed was becoming more significant. The lowest values were obtained with the yogurt supplementation (YOG) and the highest values were obtained with the standard batch (STA). The lower the value is, the better the feeding conversion index. These results justify those of the body weight of the broilers. The best performance of the group fed with yogurt (YOG) is mainly due to the nutrient content of the feed (metabolites synthetized) or the activity of probiotics in the digestive tract of the poultry. At equal quantity the feeding of the batch 3: YOG is more nutritious  than other batches followed by batch 2: YEA and 4:YEA+YOG and then batch 1: STA containing less essential nutrients.





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Received 25 October 2007; Accepted 2 January 2008; Published 1 March 2008

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