Welcome to Volume 14, Number 4 of Livestock Research for Rural
Development, the forty-fifth issue of the journal.
Increase in number of issues of LRRD
The numbers of papers submitted to LRRD has increased considerably and currently is on average two papers per week. As a result, publication frequency has been increased to a total of 6 issues for the year. Inevitably this has increased considerably the work load on editors and reviewers, all of whom give their time and efforts without remuneration.
Receipt of papers is usually confirmed the day they arrive and almost always they are sent to two reviewers the same day. We expect reviewers to send recommendations as to acceptance of papers for publication in LRRD, and comments, within two weeks of receiving the paper.
If authors do not receive information concerning their papers within two weeks of submitting them, they should remind the chief editor on: email@example.com
It will also decrease our work load and speed up publication, if authors follow carefully the style and format of LRRD by consulting published papers in earlier issues. Attention is drawn to the style of references and tables which is where most mistakes are made. Please read the section on "Notes to authors" for details. Failure to observe the LRRD norms for editing papers will inevitably lead to delays in publication, because of the additional work load this causes for the Editors.
Proof reading of papers
A paper written for LRRD in "html" has a number of supporting files including the "style" of headings and the images of graphs and photos. This creates some difficulties for editors and authors for the final "proof-reading" of the papers when these are sent by E-mail, as the editors have to ensure that the supporting files are attached along with the paper; and the author, when she / he receives the paper, has to put all the files in the same folder to be sure that when the the paper is opened it will appear complete on the screen. To avoid these inconveniences, each paper as it is edited is being made available as a provisional "url" which is communicated to authors when the final version of their paper is ready in html format. Authors can then check the paper for possible errors or last minute corrections and inform the editors accordingly.
It appears that at present there are no defined standards for citing papers published electronically. Obviously it is an advantage for such citations to include the "URL" which will take the reader direct to the paper in question. The correct citation for LRRD is now shown in the "Heading" of each paper.
The editorial strategy of Livestock Research for Rural Development is to promote the distribution of ideas and hypotheses as well as the documentation of relevant research findings in sustainable use of natural renewable resources. The medium for the former (ideas and hypotheses) traditionally has been through the presentation of short research communications usually at a conference, seminar, workshop or a meeting of members of a scientific association. At such meetings, when many short papers are submitted, these may be accommodated in simultaneous sessions for oral presentation or increasingly in the form of posters. The latter procedure is proving to be the more attractive as it facilitates the dissemination of information by having it available on a continuous basis throughout a meeting rather than at selected times as is the case with theatre presentations.
In the same way that the "tele-conference", employing E-mail and Web communication, is emerging as a cost-effective alternative to the localised (in time and place) scientific gathering, so the "electronic journal" can become a medium for the "poster" presentations. The editors of LRRD are encouraging this approach by means of a section in the journal devoted exclusively to "poster" presentations. It is hoped that by creating a medium for presenting ideas based on preliminary observations, readers interested in the data will be encouraged to enter into a dialogue with the authors. Details for the submission of the posters are given in "guides to authors".
HTML is the native language for publishing documents on the World Wide Web and is understood by all Web browsing software. The journal, as the principal means of publication of developing world sustainable agriculture, needs to be easily available to the widest possible audience of interested people. Using HTML as the on online publishing format has three principal advantages. The first is that everybody who finds the journal can read it with their Internet browser (Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape are amongst the most common). Secondly, the Internet search engines such as Alta Vista, Infoseek and others will index the pages. Thirdly, articles can be posted on the Web as "pre-publication" papers as soon as they are formatted in HTML, thus increasing tremendously the speed of communication of information.
All previous issues of the journal have now been converted to HTML format (thanks to CIPAV staff in Colombia), thus there is available on the Internet through the CIPAV web pages a library of over 12 years of research in the field of developing world sustainable agriculture.
The HTML version of LRRD is available on the Web at:
firstname.lastname@example.org in Cambodia
email@example.com in France
Volumes 1 to 9 of LRRD are now available in HTML format on a CD ROM disk. Readers who wish to receive copies should send their requests to;
UTA has now moved the base of its activities to the Royal University of Agriculture, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. A new Home page has been created which provides details of past and present activities. The URL is recently changed to:
Details of this network, financed by SAREC-Sida, and involving research and training institutions in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam, can be found on the Web site:
In line with the move of UTA to Cambodia, a new Ecological Farm has been set up on the campus of the Royal University of Agriculture, in Chamcar Daung, Dangkor District, Phnom Penh. A new Home page for the Ecological farm is now available on the UTA Web site.
Much interest has been generated in the low-cost plastic biodigesters and the duckweed ponds which are an integral feature of ecological farming. A manual giving practical details of these technologies has been prepared for FAO and is available at:
In addition to this manual which uses "still" pictures, more detailed guides on the Biodigesters and the Duckweed ponds are available on CD-ROMs in combined Video and Text format:
1. Productive use of livestock wastes: a manual for installation of low-cost plastic biodigesters
2. Productive use of livestock wastes: a manual for the use of biodigester effluent and ponds for duckweed production
Prices are USD10.00 for each CD-ROM disk plus freight. Details can be had from Lylian Rodriguez at:
This is an electronic edition of the book `Tropical Feeds', originally written by Dr Bo Göhl, and published by FAO in 1971. The database (program prepared by Dr A W Speedy and Nick Waltham) is available on CD-ROM from: The Senior Officer (Feed Resources), Animal Production and Health Division, FAO, Via della terme di Caracalla, 00100-Rome, Italy. The most recent version (version 8) is available on:
No 126, Tropical animal feeding: A manual for research workers (T R Preston) 1995, pp 305 (English)
No 132, Feeding pigs in the tropics (Rena Perez) 1997, pp 185 (English)
No 134, Tratamiento y utilización de residuos de origen animal, pesquero y alimenticio en la alimentación animal (Editors: Vilda Figueroa y Manuel Sánchez) 1997, pp 255 (Castellano)
No 135, Roughage utilization in warm climates (Michel Chenost and Chedly Kayouli) 1997, pp 226 (English et Français)
No 139, Tree foliage in ruminant nutrition (Ronald A Leng) 1997, pp 100 (English)
Duckweed; a tiny aquatic plant with enormous potential for agriculture and environment (Ronald A Leng) 1999, pp 108 (English)
No 42, Using fodder from trees and shrubs to feed livestock in the tropics (O B Smith), pp 52 (English, Français, Castellano)
No 43, Feeding animals on straw (F Dolberg), pp30 (English)
No 44, Processing of cassava and sweet potatoes for animal feeding (V Ravindran), pp 49 (English)
No 45, Multinutrient block handbook (L O Garcia and J I Restrepo), pp 28 (English)
No 46, Use of cassava and sweet potatoes in animal feeding (V Ravindran), pp 47 (English)
Copies can be obtained from: The Senior Officer, Feed Resources Group, AGA, FAO, 00100 Rome Italy
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