Livestock Research for Rural Development

Volume 13 Number 1, 2001

Abstracts of papers in LRRD, Volume 13,
Number 1


Comparison of raw, washed and polished quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to wheat, sorghum or maize based diets on growth and survival of broiler chicks. 

F Improta and R O Kellems 

Animal Science Department, Brigham Young University
Provo, UT 84602 USA

e-mail :

Quinoa is a cereal grain that originated in the highlands of South America. It is high in protein (12.2% Crude Protein (CP)), and in the limiting amino acids lysine and methionine. It also contains a number of anti-nutritional substances, such as saponins, phytic acid, tannins and trypsin inhibitors, which can have a negative effect on performance and survival of monogastric animals when it is used as the primary dietary energy source. Four trials were conducted to determine what effect different methods of processing quinoa (raw, washed, polished) and dietary CP levels would have on the performance and survival of broiler chicks fed quinoa as compared to wheat, maize and sorghum based diets. Raw quinoa fed broilers had reduced growth and dramatically reduced survival rates as compared to the washed or polished treatments. Broilers fed washed quinoa performed better than those fed polished quinoa.  Chicks receiving the washed quinoa performed nearly as well as those receiving the maize/soybean meal diets. The washing seemed to be  more effective than removing the outer hull (polishing) in removing the anti-quality factors that were depressing performance. Elevating the dietary protein level from (13.2 to 18 to 23 %) was shown to improve growth and survival in the quinoa- fed groups. The results of these trials indicated that washing and polishing the quinoa seeds prior to feeding and increasing the dietary CP or slightly reducing the amount of quinoa present in the diet, by adding soybean meal, improved growth and survival of broiler chicks.

Key words: Quinoa, broilers, survival, growth, anti-nutritional factors, saponins

Upgrading of Brahman to Guzerat and Nellore on improved pasture. 2. Birth, weaning and eighteen-month weight

Rafael Romero, Dieter Plasse, Omar Verde, Rafael Hoogesteijn, 
Bastidas y Rafael Rodríguez*

Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias. Maracay, Venezuela *Agropecuaria Flora C.A. Valencia, Venezuela.

With the objective of studying growth characteristics in an upgrading program of Brahman (B) to Guzerat (G) and Nellore (N), between 1977 and 1985 a total of 1560 calves, progeny of 42 sires (14 B, 12 G and 16 N), of  the following breed groups (R)  were produced: B, 3/4 G, 7/8 G, 15/16 G, G, 1/2 N, 3/4 N, 7/8 N, 15/16 N and N. The experiment was carried out on a private ranch in Carabobo State, Venezuela. Weights at birth (BW), weaning weight ajusted to 205 days (205W) and eighteen-month weight adjusted to 548 days (548W) were analyzed by least squares procedures using a linear model that included the random effect of sires within breed group (P:R),and the fixed effects of: breed group of calf (R), sex (S), year (Y) and month (M) of birth, age of dam (A) and the Y x M interaction. The calves were born in the dry season (December to April) and were kept with their dams until weaning (mean 243 days). After weaning, for 1 to 3 months, they received 1 kg/day of  supplement and cut grass or hay in the corral. After this period, the calves were maintained on improved pasture.

The effects of R, S, P:R  and  A  were statistically significant (P < 0.01) on BW,  205W  and  548W,  except P:R  and  A in 548W (P < 0.05). The effect of Y was significant (P < 0.01) in 205W and 548W, but not in BW. The interaction Y x M was significant in 548W (P< 0.01), and 205W (P< 0.05) but not in BW.  M only influenced 548W (P < 0.01). Unadjusted and adjusted means were 29.4, 27.9; 187, 180 and 320, 312 kg, respectively, for BW, 205W and 548W. All crossbred calves except 1/2 N were lighter than B (P < 0.01) at all ages. Breed group constants for B, 3/4 G, 7/8 G, 15/16 G, G, 1/2 N, 3/4 N, 7/8 N, 15/16 N and N were for   BW: 3.8, -0.6,  -1.2,  -1.8, -0.9,  -1.1, 0.6, 0.2, 1.2, -0.2 kg;  for  205W: 16.5, -5.4, -3.7,   -3.2,  -8.4,  3.9,  1.8,  2.3, 0.9,   -4.8 kg  and  for 548W: 25.2, -8.1, -9.7, -11.3, -12.7, 30.1, 5.9,-2.1, -7.1, -10.2 kg., respectively. At 548 days purebreds (G and N) were 11% lighter than B, and crossbreds between 6 and 11 % below B. There was a trend towards lower weights as upgrading advanced, and this was especially evident in 548W.  

It is concluded that upgrading Brahman  to Guzerat and Nellore did not improve birth, weaning and eighteen-month weights and is not a way to improve these traits under the tropical environment of this study. 

Key words: Beef cattle, Brahman, Guzerat, Nellore, crossbreeding, growth

Effects of feeder space allowance on agonistic behaviour and growth performance of broilers 

Oluyinka A Olukosi,  Olajumoke C Daniyan and  Opes Matanmi

Department of Animal Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria

One hundred and thirty-two 4-week old unsexed Anak-200 broiler strain chickens were used to study the effect of feeder space allowance on agonistic behaviour and growth performance from weeks 4 to 8. The feeder space allowances (cm/bird) were 2.4, 3.0 and 3.6. The agonistic behaviour that was observed included head pecks, steps, pushes, threats and chase during feeding and “non-feeding” periods.  

 Increasing the feeder space reduced agonistic acts (acts/bird/hour) during the feeding period from 7.8 (at 2.4cm feeder space) to 4.5 (at 3.6 cm/bird). There was no effect of feeder space allowance on mean agonistic acts during the non-feeding period. Feeder space allowance had no effect on growth performance parameters. 

Key words: Agonistic behaviour, feeder space, growth performance, broilers

Factors affecting cost of production and net profit per broiler in the subtropics 

M Farooq,  M A Mian* and A Asghar*

Poultry Science Department, NWFP, Agricultural University,
Peshawar, Pakistan.   
SRSC, Haripur, Pakistan.

Data from 61 broiler farms (each one comprising 6 flocks) located in Mardan Division, NWFP, Pakistan were collected during the year 1997-98 to investigate some factors affecting cost of production and net profit. Average cost of production and net profit per broiler were Rs.51.38±1.08 and Rs.7.92±0.85, respectively. Per cent mortality had a negative effect on net profit per broiler but did not affect cost of production. Market age and flock size were negatively and positively associated (b=-1.06±0.536; and b=0.40±0.127, respectively) with net profit.  Net profit was lower when the flock size was less than 1500 birds. Cost of production was reduced in optimally utilised sheds, on concrete type floors and for broilers maintained under average hygienic conditions. Net profit per broiler was higher on concrete floors, and in optimally utilised sheds and from broilers maintained under good hygienic conditions. Higher flock size, reduction in mortality and in market age, better utilisation of the available shed capacity, appropriate hygienic measures and use of concrete floors were suggested as important factors for increasing net profit for broiler production in the subtropics.

Key word: Mortality, flock size, hygiene,  market age and utilization of shed.

Influence of suckling before milking on yield and composition of milk from dual purpose cows with restricted suckling 

Merbis Tesorero, J Combellas, W Uzcátegui and L Gabaldón

Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Agronomía, Maracay, Venezuela

Restricted suckling before and after milking is used in most dual purpose cattle systems of Latin America, but many strategies exist that can alter milk fat and yield. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the influence of stimulation with calf suckling before milking on milk fat, yield of saleable and consumed milk and liveweight gain of calves in dual purpose systems with restricted suckling. Brahman x Holstein cows (n = 24) of 2 or more parities were used. They were machine milked twice daily. Their calves suckled their dams for 30 minutes after the morning milking. They received chopped forage ad libitum and up to 1 kg/day of concentrate before weaning, which occurred at 90 kg liveweight.  A completely randomized design was used to compare three treatments: W,  without suckling before milking; AM, suckling before milking in the morning; and AM+PM, suckling both before morning and afternoon milking.

In treatments W, AM and AM+PM, saleable milk yields before weaning were 7.0, 8.9 and 8.1 kg/day; the quantities of milk consumed by the calves were 2.9, 2.5 and 1.7 kg/day; and total milk yields were 9.8, 11.4 and 9.9 kg/day. Milk fat was 6.0, 7.4 and 7.0 % in the milk consumed by the calves, and 2.1, 2.4 and 2.6 % in saleable milk. The liveweight gains of the calves in the same treatments were 0.54, 0.50 and 0.47 kg/day.

These results show that restricted suckling before milking to stimulate “let-down” increases saleable milk yield and its fat content without affecting calf growth rate, provided a feed supplement is given.

Key words: Brahman X Holstein, cattle, restricted suckling, milk yield, milk fat, growth

In vitro estimates of nitrogen digestibility for pigs and water-soluble nitrogen are correlated in 
tropical forage feeds

J Ly and T R Preston

University of Tropical Agriculture Foundation
Royal University of Agriculture
Chamcar Daung, PO Box 2423 Phnom Penh 3, Cambodia

In vitro digestibility (pig pepsin/pancreatin) and water-soluble nitrogen (N) (by water extraction during three 30 minute cycles in a commercial washing machine) were determined in samples from seventeen tropical forage feeds available in Indochina (N range: 0.90 to 5.33 % on dry basis). 

Aquatic macrophytes revealed a high in vitro N digestibility (average of 67.6%) and a high water-soluble value of N (average of  51.5%). In vitro N digestibility of several trees and shrubs foliage was variable, with a minimum for N. fruticans (1.0%) and a maximum for H. rosasinensis (67.8%). The corresponding water-soluble N values for these two types of forages were 0.8 and 51.8% respectively. Crop residues exhibited variable values for in vitro N digestibility, with a minimum for rice straw (O. Sativa) of  0.2%) and a maximum for cassava (M. Esculenta) leaves of 57.8%. In all cases the values for in vitro N digestibility (range from  0.2 to 69.0%) were higher (P=0.001) than the water-soluble N values (range from 0.1 to 52.0%).  A close, linear relationship (R2 = 0.98; P=0.001) was established between the in vitro N digestibility (Y in %) and the water-soluble N values (X in %), the equation being: Y = 0.693 + 1.283X (SExy ±0.051)

It is suggested that in vitro digestibility (estimated with pig pepsin / pancreatin)  and water-soluble N (measured by repeated water extraction during three 30 minute cycles in a commercial washing machine) are closely related.  It is concluded that the water-soluble N measurement is an adequate first approximation on which to predict the true digestibility of protein in tropical forages for  monogastric animals.

Key words: in vitro digestibility, water-soluble,  nitrogen, tropical forages, aquatic plants, shrubs and tree leaves, pigs

Integrated agroecological systems as a way forward 
for Cuban agriculture

Fernando Funes-Monzote and Marta Monzote

Pastures and Forage Research Institute (IIPF)
PO Box 4029, CP 10400 Havana, Cuba

A three-year experiment was carried out to study different agro-ecological livestock:crop systems under different soils and climates, without irrigation and using on-farm resources for animal and plant nutrition. Five farms, four in the process of conversion and the fifth with twelve years of establishment were studied. Eight sustainability indicators (reforestation, total species, food products, labour intensity, production of organic fertilisers, yields, energy efficiency and milk production) were defined, which relate to the main productive and environmental problems faced by the livestock sector due to the specialised agricultural model that has prevailed in Cuba over the last few years. These indicators were weighted, represented on a radial graph and evaluated through an analytical description and multivariate analysis.

Biodiversity increased after the establishment of integrated systems. Starting from specialised milk production systems, diversification allowed for between 30 and 40 more products. The integrated systems increased the energy efficiency from 3 to 10 joules produced per joule of input. Labour intensity decreased yearly after a greater initial labour demand required for establishing the system. Production of high quality organic fertiliser (2 to 4 tonnes/ha) was a major resource to cover the crop nutrient requirements. Productivity increased by up to 9.7 tonnes/ha including both animal and crop production. There was some fluctuation between animal and crop production, but the final result was higher system productivity.

The results of the study show that integrated ecological livestock:crop systems can provide sufficient capacity and potential  to sustain intensive production based on available natural resource management alternatives.

Key words: Ecological farming, integrated systems, biodiversity, sustainability indicators, organic fertilizers

Milk market of small scale artisan cheese factories in selected livestock watersheds of Honduras and Nicaragua

Federico Holmann

International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI).  PO Box 6713, Cali, Colombia.

Surveys were made of rural artisan cheese factories located in the region of Olancho, Catacamas, and Juticalpa in Honduras (n=10) and  in Esquipulas and Muy-Muy in Nicaragua (n=13).  The objective was to analyze the milk market of small rural artisan cheese factories in livestock watersheds of Honduras and Nicaragua to determine if:

The main buyer of the milk from small and medium scale farmers in Honduras and Nicaragua is the rural artisan cheese industry, which absorbs almost 80% of the milk produced in both countries.  Total milk production during the rainy season is about twice that during the dry season, causing an over-supply and scarcity of milk, respectively. The shortage of fluid milk during the dry season leads to an unsatisfied market. The artisan cheese factories in Honduras and Nicaragua would be willing to buy 76% and 55% more milk during the dry season, but this supply is not available due low milk productivity.  This fact suggests that an aggressive program for the promotion of shrub legumes with sugarcane to supplement the herd during the dry season would have more impact that the promotion of grasses or legumes for the rainy season when there is little market for additional milk produced.  In addition, rural artisan cheese factories in Honduras and Nicaragua, that consider the milk they collect is of bad quality, would be willing to pay a higher price if the option to collect milk of better hygienic quality exists. In Honduras this price would be about 9% higher during the dry season and 11% higher during  the rainy season.  In Nicaragua the cheese factories would be willing to pay a milk price which is 17% higher, but only during the rainy season. As a result, large incentives exist in both countries to increase milk production during the dry season and to improve the hygienic quality of milk in the studied areas.

Keywords: Milk market, milk quality, small scale cheese factories, Honduras,  Nicaragua

Effect of temporary weaning on the reproductive performance of dual-purpose cows in the tropics

V M Segura-Correa, S Anderson*, R Delgado-León R** 
y  J C Segura-Correa**

Centro de Investigación Regional del Sureste, INIFAP Km 25 Carretera Mérida-Motul, 
CP 97454. Mococha, Yucatán, México

*Imperial College, University of London, Ashford, Kent, UK

**Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, UADY,
 Km 15.5 Carretera Mérida-Xmatkuil, AP 4-116, Itzimná, Mérida, Yucatán, México.

An experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production of the University of Yucatán to evaluate the effect of temporary weaning of the calves on the reproductive performance of crossbred Brown Swiss / Zebua cows. The cows (n=21) were assigned to the fpolllowing treatments:

The cows grazed African Star grass pastures during the night-time and were housed during the day with free access to water and a mineral mixture. At milking and again in the afternoon  the cows received 2 kg of a 15% crude protein concentrate (4 kg/cow/day). The calves were kept in Star grass paddocks and had free access to a 16% crude protein concentrate until 45 days of age thereafter had  restricted amounts of 1 kg/day until weaning.

Mean values for interval from calving to first corpus luteum were 88.5±16 and 76.9±12 days for "T" and : "DT" , respectively (P>0.05).  "DT" had no effect on presence of corpus lutea at 45, 90 and 180 days post-calving but reduced the interval from calving to first oestrus (determined up to 365 days post-calving). There were 58% more cases of oestrus up to 180 days post-calving in the "DT" treatment. Duration of the first oestrus cycle post-calving, and the number of luteal phases before the first oestrus, did not differ between treatments.  Daily liveweight gain to weaning and weaning weight were not affected by the temporary weaning.

Key words: Temporary weaning, restricted suckling, reproduction, dual purpose, crossbred cattle

Forages commonly available to goats under farm conditions on Lombok Island, Indonesia


Faculty of Animal Science, University of Mataram
Jl. Majapahit No 62 Mataram 83125, NTB, Indonesia

Two surveys were conducted during the wet and dry seasons on Lombok Island, Indonesia to study feeding and management practices for goats raised under the small-scale production system. It was found that a wide range of forages was fed to goats with 40 and 30 different types being used during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Native grasses and fodder trees, particularly Sesbania grandiflora, were the most readily available feeds and these were offered to goats both as a mixed and as the sole diet. Other fodder trees such as Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Hibiscus tilliaceus and Eythrina lithosperma, and some agricultural byproducts such as cassava and sweet potato leaves, were also fed to goats but to a lesser extent. Only a very few farmers offered rice straw, the most abundantly available agricultural byproduct, to goats both during wet and dry seasons.

Key words: Goats, production system, wet season, dry season, feeding, management, survey, fodder trees



Go to top