This paper reviews the development of multi-nutrient blocks (MNB) for rabbits in Mauritius with special emphasis on the choice of ingredients, formulation and preparation. In Mauritius, the most appropriate ingredients are: molasses, wheat bran, cottonseed meal, cement, mineral mixtures and common salt. Selection of the final formula and casting procedure was arrived at by an empirical method of trial and error. The final product was a mini-block weighing 15 g.
This paper reports digestibility coefficients and growth and conversion parameters in rabbits fed with commercial rabbit pellets supplemented by 15 or 30 g daily of multi-nutrient mini-blocks (MNB). The treatments consisted of a control (commercial rabbit pellets), a treatment using 15 g/day MNB + pellets ad libitum and another using 30 g/day of MNB + pellets ad libitum. Eighteen rabbits were kept in individual cages and were randomly allocated to the three treatments. The parameters investigated were digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), protein, ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and energy during a period of 11 days. Subsequently, growth rates were measured over a 55 day period.
Compared to the pellets, the MNB had a higher amount of ash and fibre but were lower in crude protein and energy. Digestibility of dry matter and organic matter was highest for rabbits supplemented with 30 g MNB followed by those with 15 g MNB. The crude protein and ether extract digestibility did not differ significantly. There was a difference (P<0.05) in the NDF digestibility in favour of the diets with supplementary MNB.
In the growth trial, rabbits in treatments MNB15 and MNB30 had higher (P<0.05) dry matter (DM) intake (127 ± 18.8 and 125 ± 9.86 g/head/day, respectively) than those on the control treatment (104 ± 11.4 g/head/day). The average weight gains for rabbits fed only pellets was 14.8 ± 5.82 g/head/day, significantly less than for the MNB15 and MNB30 treatments (23.4 ± 3.5 and 26.4 ± 6.3 g/head/day, respectively). There were no differences in feed conversion among the treatments.
The beneficial effect of the multi-nutrient blocks was reflected in the improved growth rate, reduction in the time required to reach slaughter live weight and lower cost of production.
Some Latin-American countries do not use animal excreta to feed ruminants. An experiment was carried out to study the feasibility to feed Pelibuey ovines with high levels of pig manure and poultry manure in their diet during the finishing period. Emphasis was made to evaluate their productivity, health, body composition and copper in the liver. Fifteen animals with 22 months age and 20.7 kg body weight were fed 31 days a feed based on pig manure and then 28 days with a poultry manure based diet. After slaughter, the internal organs and the kidney fat were recorded. The left carcass was divided into neck, thorax, abdomen, arm and leg. Each part was dissected into soft tissues and bone. Daily weight gain (0.155 kg), carcass yield (41.8%), the proportion of each part of the left carcass and the ratio of soft-to-bone tissue, were found to be normal in comparison with other reports. Copper in the liver was also found to be in a normal range. Animals remained healthy during the experiment. It is concluded that, in the conditions of the present experiment, pig and poultry manure were suitable and safe ingredients to be incorporated in sheep diets since they did not affect in a negative way their productivity or health.
Algunos países latinoamericanos no utilizan las excretas animales para alimentar rumiantes. Se llevó a cabo un estudio con el objetivo de estudiar la factibilidad de alimentar ovinos Pelibuey durante la finalización de su engorda con niveles elevados en la dieta de cerdaza y pollinaza, midiendo el impacto sobre su productividad, estado de salud, composición corporal y la presencia de Cu en el hígado. Se utilizaron 15 borregos con una edad de 22 meses y un peso inicial de 20.7 kg. Los animales permanecieron durante 31 días consumiendo una alimentación basándose en cerdaza y 28 días la alimentación se basó en suministro de pollinaza. Después de su sacrificio, se pesaron las vísceras y la grasa perirenal. La canal izquierda, fue subdividida en las siguientes regiones: cuello, tórax, abdomen, brazo y pierna. Se disecó cada parte en tejido blandos y hueso. La ganancia de peso (0.155 kg), el rendimiento en canal (41.8 %), la proporción de cada uno de los cortes y la relación entre tejido blando y hueso obtenidos, se consideran apropiados. La concentración de cobre en hígado se encontró dentro de los rangos normales. No se registró ningún tipo de padecimiento patológico en los animales durante la prueba. Se concluye que, en las condiciones de este experiencia, es factible utilizar cerdaza y pollinaza en la alimentación de borregos Pelibuey sin afectar negativamente su productividad y manteniendo su estado de salud.
China produces more than 500 million tonnes of crop straw and stover every year .By promoting feeding of herbivorous animals with crop straw and stover, the beef and mutton output could be increased markedly and a great amount of feed grain would be saved. This paper reviews the different techniques for the utilization of crop straw and stover, and highlights the achievements in the 1990's.The techniques that have been used include physical treatment, chemical treatment and microbial treatment methods. Data are given on the actual rate of use in China of these crop residues.
C A Juárez, A J A Manríquez y C J C Segura*
* Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán (FMVZ), Apdo. 4-116, Mérida, Yucatán, México. C.P. 97,100
The aim of the research was to estimate the frequency of traits of phenotypic appearance that are exhibited by local "Creole" hens. The methodology consisted of weekly surveys in different parts of the municipality of Ribera del Lago de Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, México. The results were (n = 6,000) for feathers: 24.9% red, 21.3% black, 16.8% brown, 11.1% grey, 19.1% other colours and 7.2% with colour typical of commercial breeds (Barred Plymouth Rock, Rhode Island Red and White Leghorn). For type of crest: 98% simple, 2% crinkled. Colour of the legs: 36.8% yellow, 29.7% pink, 22.1% black, 9.2% blue, 2.2% green; without feathers 99.5; 0.45% with feathers. Type of plumage: normal 88.2%, naked neck 10.9%, curled 1.3%. Ornamental traits were present in 34% (28% with white ears, 3% with "beards" and 3% with crests). It is postulated that these results indicate, in part, the origin of the "Creole" hens in Mexico and the degree of penetration of genes from "commercial" breeds. The findings also indicate potential areas of research oriented towards studies of productive adaptability and possible relationships with the phenotypic appearance traits identified in this study.
Key words: Creole hens, phenotypic traits, physical appearance, plumage, crossbreeding, commercial strains, backyard poultry
El objetivo del trabajo fue estimar
la frecuencia de los rasgos de apariencia fenotípica que exhiben las gallinas criollas.
La metodología consistió en realizar monitoreos semanales en localidades de los
municipios de la Ribera del Lago de Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, México. Los resultados
fueron: n=6,000; 24.9% con plumaje rojo; 21.3% negro; 16.8% pardas; 11.1% gris; 19.1% de
otros colores menos frecuentes y 7.2% de colores propios de estirpes comerciales (Plymouth
Rock Barred, Rhode Island Red y White Leghorn). En relación con el tipo de cresta: 98%
simple y 2% en rosa. Características de los tarsos: 36.8% amarillos; 29.7% rosados; 22.1%
negros; 9.2% azúles; 2.2% verdes; 99.5% sin plumas y 0.45% emplumados. Tipo de plumaje:
88.2% normal; 10.9% de cuello desnudo y 1.3% rizado. El 34% presentan aditamentos
ornamentales (28% orejillas blancas; 3% barbudas y 3% copetonas). Se discute la
posibilidad de que estos resultados sugieran, al menos en parte, el origen de la parvada
criolla mexicana, el grado de penetración de las estirpes comerciales y el desarrollo de
trabajos de investigación posteriores, orientados al estudio de la adaptabilidad
productiva y su posible asociación con los rasgos de apariencia fenotípica aquí
Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Central Avenue, Chatham
Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK , Umberleigh, North Devon EX37 9AS UK ,
Fax: 44 1634 883706
Fax: 01769 560601
University of Greenwich, Central Avenue, Chatham
Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK , Umberleigh, North Devon EX37 9AS UK ,
Central Avenue, Chatham
Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK , Umberleigh, North Devon EX37 9AS UK ,
, Umberleigh, North Devon EX37 9AS UK ,
, Umberleigh, North Devon EX37 9AS UK ,
Umberleigh, North Devon EX37 9AS UK ,
North Devon EX37 9AS UK ,
article uses a case study of Burkina Faso to examine the problems involved in assigning
institutional responsibility for livestock production extension, and the improvised and
hybrid solutions that may be adopted at local level. In Burkina Faso, as in other
developing countries, changes in livestock production systems, especially processes of
intensification and crop-livestock integration, and increasing peri-urban production,
create new demands for livestock production information.
However, the national extension system, designed on Training and Visit lines, does
not assign a role in extension (i.e. information transfer) to the Provincial Services for
Animal Resources. Livestock production
extension is mainly delivered by generalist frontline staff, some progress has been made
in overcoming problems associated with this. In
practice, middle-level livestock specialists are to be found working in extension in
Pastoral Zones and enclave projects, and with selected mixed farmers and
peri-urban producers. This self-selection of
clientele and involvement of middle level staff in frontline extension has negative equity
implications which need addressing through cost-recovery.
An experiment was conducted for 56 days with growing West African Dwarf goats to evaluate the effects of tethering feeding management on body weight and development during the 1998 cropping season in Benue State, Nigeria. Changes (mm\kgW.75\day) in withers height were similar (P>0.05) in male (0.12±0.04) and female (0.15±0.05) goats. Female animals showed superior body weight changes (2.70±0.95g\kgW.75\day), and in overall better thoracic girth (0.17±0.06) compared to the values of 0.84±0.30g\kgW.75\day and 0.04±0.01 for the males, respectively. Both male and female goats showed a high degree of selectivity, observed by the goats smelling forage species with the nose.
The goats did not thrive exclusively on grass, but fed also on browse. Peak grazing activities were between 0800-1000 hours, while at noon (1200-1400 hours), light browsing, resting or rumination were observed. In the evening (1400-1600 hours), light grazing predominated. Light rains did not affect grazing behavior of the goats but foraging behavior was affected by heavy rains and excessively sunny days.
Close observation or supervision were found to disturb the grazing habit of the goats, with males more easily frightened than the females. Both sexes have a marked ability to identify pasture species of high palatability. Forage species not more than 45 cm tall were most preferred as the goats spent more time grazing them.
For optimum productivity, West African Dwarf goats managed under tethering may be tethered in locations of both grass and browse plants. Also, to minimize the adverse effect of heat or heavy rain, it is suggested that tethered animals be left at the grazing area for only their active grazing hours.
Eighteen families who owned at least 10 sugar palm trees and were interested to rear pigs participated in this study which was carried out in Kandal village, Ang Snoul district in Kandal province, 40 km west of Phnom Penh city. The juice from 157 sugar palm trees of both sexes (119 males and 38 females) was used as the principal energy source for fattening pigs.
The average daily juice yield varied among families (P=0.001) in the range of 3.00 to 4.92 kg/day with a median value of 3.89 kg/day. The corresponding values for the Brix (total sugars) content were a range of 11.6 to 12.8% (P=0.001) and a median value of 12.3%.
Seventy two pigs (23 males and 49 females) of different crossbreeds were reared during 5 months on a diet of ad libitum sugar palm juice, 500 g/day of rice bran and 400 g/day of fresh water fish silage which was made by mixing the partly eviscerated fish with sugar palm syrup and rice bran (Fresh weight ratios were: Fish, rice bran, sugar palm syrup; 50:10:40) and storing anaerobically in sealed plastic bags. The average daily intake of sugar palm juice was 8 kg. The protein intake was estimated to be 130 g/pig/day. The growth rates of the pigs varied among families in the range of 325 to 476 g/day with an average of 405±47 g/day.
The small-scale dairy farms have not been much studied in México even though they provide 35% of the national milk production. In the Morelia-Querendaro valley in Michoacan, there are about 7 thousand of these farms. A methodology was developed to evaluate production, environmental effects and recognition of the main problems in nine of these farms. The SILFIRA computerised program was used to analyse the data and the Mexican quality water norms were used to evaluate the environmental effect. The system was characterised as having 16.5 animal units in 6.4 ha of useful agricultural land, seeded mainly with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and maize (Zea mays) for grain. The milk production per cow was from 3,500 to 4,500 kg in 305 days, with a 13.8 month period between calvings. There were 88.8% of the farms with subclinical mastitis with over 20% of prevalence. The tuberculosis and brucelosis prevalence was 6.8 and 3.3%. The relation between fresh excreta production and milk production was 4.7:1 (fresh basis). As contaminants there were phosphates derived from detergents in drinking water sources and in an irrigation channel. They were detected too in the wells supplying water to the livestock on each farm and were apparently derived from faeces. Nitrates were found in water from one of the wells and faecal coliforms were found in all of them, derived from excreta of the milking cattle. There was no standard manure management on the croplands. It is concluded that the methodology was useful for evaluating the production in the small-scale farms and the environmental effect on the sources of water. Arising from the study, six Master theses were initiated.
Las explotaciones lecheras de pequeña escala han sido poco estudiadas aunque aportan el 35% de la producción nacional de leche. En el Valle Morelia-Queréndaro, Mich, existen unas 7000 explotaciones de este tipo, por ello se instauró una metodología de evaluación de producción, efecto ambiental y problemas relevantes en nueve de éstas. Se alimentó el programa computarizado SILFIRA con datos de producción y se usaron las normas oficiales de calidad de agua para valorar efecto ambiental. Se caracterizó el sistema por sostener 16.5 unidades animal, en 6.4 ha de superficie agrícola útil, sembradas de alfalfa (Medicago sativa) y maíz (Zea mays) para grano preponderantemente. La producción de leche por lactancia/vaca varía de 3,500 a 4,500 kg en 305 días, con un período interparto promedio de 13.8 meses. La comercialización se realiza a través de intermediario y es un factor determinante en la toma de decisiones. De las explotaciones, 88.8% mostró prevalencia de mastitis subclínica por arriba de 20%. Hubo una prevalencia de 6.8 y 3.3% por el número de animales reactores positivos para brucelosis y tuberculosis, respectivamente, con una focalidad de 33% y 67%. La relación de producción de excretas en fresco por kg de leche fue 4.7 kg. Se encontraron como contaminantes fosfatos atribuibles a detergentes en pozos de suministro de agua potable y en un canal de riego. También se detectaron en norias de productores, atribuibles a excretas. Se encontraron nitratos en una de las norias y coliformes fecales en todas las norias de los productores, atribuibles a las excretas del ganado lechero. Se carece de una tecnología estandarizada para el manejo de excretas al aplicarlas en áreas agrícolas. La metodología permitió evaluar la producción en las explotaciones en pequeña escala y su efecto ambiental en el agua. La problemática sirvió para iniciar seis tesis de maestría.
A 2x2 factorial experiment was carried out to determine the effects of two levels of dietary calcium (0.85% vs.1.10%) in combination with Vitamin C supplementation (0 vs. 150ppm) on growth, survivability, leg abnormalities, total ash in the tibia bone, serum calcium and phosphorus in 0-4 week-old chicks. Results showed that the experimental factors did not significantly affect the growth rate of chicks (P>0.05). However, the diet containing 1.10% Ca supplemented with 150 ppm Vitamin C resulted in the lowest mortality (2.4%), incidence of crooked legs (2.2%) and serum P (but not statistically significant (P >0.05)). This diet also brought about the highest concentration of total ash in the tibia bone. The group fed on 0.85% Ca without supplemental Vitamin C had the highest mortality (4.3%) and incidence of crooked legs (6.34%). It is therefore suggested that the diet containing 1.10% Ca supplemented with 150 ppm Vitamin C is good for increased survivability and reduced leg abnormalities.
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